16.3. Expenses Indices, Agricultural and Non-Agricultural

The yearly movements in the total of expenses do not show much difference between agricultural and non-agricultural: The main difference between the indices for agricultural labourers and for non-agricultural workers, were:  the agricultural labourer was more affected by the yearly movements in the prices of cereals (upwards and downwards);  the non-industrial worker up to theSigue leyendo «16.3. Expenses Indices, Agricultural and Non-Agricultural»

16.2. Living Costs for Non-Agricultural Occupations

The first task is to decide the weights of the different cost elements in the family budgets. Below we have the figures for some families noted in previous sections.   Spinners 1806 WoolWeaver1828 Two Spinners1833 Two Spinners1833 Operative 1839       % % % Bread, meal, flour, oatcake 22.3 25.0 17.0 20.1 22.0 Meat, bacon 22.3 7.0Sigue leyendo «16.2. Living Costs for Non-Agricultural Occupations»

16.1. Wages in Non-Agricultural Occupations

We now present the average earnings in shillings in each non-agricultural occupation, following the tables and graphs in previous sections.  The earnings per occupation are then weighted by numbers of employees, to give an average for the country in each year.  Cotton   Labourer   Boot   Seamst   Miners   Builders   Tailors   Woollens       shoe   Coal  1770 8.0 7.0Sigue leyendo «16.1. Wages in Non-Agricultural Occupations»

Chapter 16. Calculations of Movements in Nominal Wages, Cost of Living, and Real Wages

16.1. Wages in Non-Agricultural Occupations https://history.pictures/2020/03/24/16-1-wages-in-non-agricultural-occupations/ 16.2. Living Costs for Non-Agricultural Occupations https://history.pictures/2020/03/24/16-2-living-costs-for-non-agricultural-occupations/ 16.3. Expenses Indices, Agricultural and Non-Agricultural https://history.pictures/2020/03/24/16-3-expenses-indices-agricultural-and-non-agricultural/ 16.4. Movements in Real Wages, Agricultural and Non-Agricultural https://history.pictures/2020/03/24/16-4-movements-in-real-wages-agricultural-and-non-agricultural/ 16.5. Wages, Expenses, and Real Wages, for Agricultural plus Non-Agricultural Occupations https://history.pictures/2020/03/24/16-5-wages-expenses-and-real-wages-for-agricultural-plus-non-agricultural-occupations/ 16.6. Necessary Corrections https://history.pictures/2020/03/24/16-6-necessary-corrections/ To calculate the average increases in earnings for people with continuousSigue leyendo «Chapter 16. Calculations of Movements in Nominal Wages, Cost of Living, and Real Wages»

15.6. Reasons for Extreme Poverty

The Industrial Revolution strictly defined, that is, the use of machines and the factory system, did not cause poverty. In many “modern industries”, the workers were enabled to produce large quantities of articles at low prices, and thus could receive good wages. In many cases, new – metal – tools came into use, which madeSigue leyendo «15.6. Reasons for Extreme Poverty»

15.5. Treatment of Children outside of the Textile Industries

The sector of the population, which suffered most physically in the years of the Industrial Revolution, was that of those children and young persons who did not work inthe textile factories. The point is that, from 1819 onwards, children below the age of nine could not enter into employment in the textile factories; further, the conditionsSigue leyendo «15.5. Treatment of Children outside of the Textile Industries»

15.4. Unemployment and Slumps

Another set of factors in calculating the real incomes of the working class in England in these years, is the prevalence of recessions and slumps, general medium term unemployment, and shore-time working. There is a lot of difference – particularly for the men and women concerned – between a continuous income of 20 shillings aSigue leyendo «15.4. Unemployment and Slumps»

15.3. Poverty in the Countryside

We also have reports about the poor and the very poor agricultural labourers in this period. They speak of continuous hunger. The reports come primarily from a book “The Hungry Forties: Life under the Bread Tax” of 1904, which is a collection of about 60 memories by very old people (the oldest is 100), referring toSigue leyendo «15.3. Poverty in the Countryside»

15.2. «Dickens’ London»

There is no documentation of the very poor and their activities in London around 1800-1820, although there were a number of poor dress- and clothes-makers. It was to be expected that an increase in the population from 1820 would cause more poverty, due to the structural problems of the metropolis. Firstly, there was no heavySigue leyendo «15.2. «Dickens’ London»»

15.1. The Underclass

There is still another adjustment to be made to the calculation of average wage increases. Up to this point we have not been able to construct the picture of “cotton mills, children badly treated, and very low wages”, since this does not fit with the fact of the general increase in wages. Following we willSigue leyendo «15.1. The Underclass»