9.3A. Consumption of Other Foods

Milk Milk in London was supplied by 8,500 cows in 1794, and by 19,000 in 1860. These cows were kept in small milking units in Islington, Hackney, and Edgware Road in 1794, to which was added the district of Kensington by 1829. The mill was sold at 4 to 5 pence the quart.  From beforeSigue leyendo «9.3A. Consumption of Other Foods»


Maps Map of Lancashire, Aikin, 1795 Map of West Riding of Yorkshire, Aikin, 1795 Map British Isles, Distribution of the Population, 1841 Map England and Wales, Distribution of the Population, Census 1851 Map England and Wales, Distribution of the Occupations of the People, Census 1851 Plan of Manchester, 1841, Pigot’s Commercial Directory of Manchester MapSigue leyendo «Maps»

Works Consulted 20th and 21st Centuries

Afton, Bethanie“A Want of Good Feeling”: A Reassessment of the Economic and Political Causes of the Rural Unrest in Hampshire, 1830Proceedings Hampshire Field Club Archaeology Society, 43, 1987, pp. 237-254http://www.hantsfieldclub.org.uk/publications/hampshirestudies/digital/1980s/vol43/Afton.pdf Afton, Bethany“The Motive which has operated on the Minds of my People”: 1830, The Propensity of Hampshire Parishes to RiotProceedings Hampshire Field Club Archaeology Society,Sigue leyendo «Works Consulted 20th and 21st Centuries»

Works Consulted 18th and 19th Centuries

Adshead, JosephDistress in Manchester: Evidence (tabular and otherwise) of the State of the Labouring Classes in 1840-42Henry Hooper, London, 1842https://archive.org/details/distressinmanche00ahsh  Aikin, ArthurJournal of a Tour through North Wales and ShropshireJ. Johnson, London, 1797 Aikin, JohnA Description of the Country from Thirty to Forty Miles round ManchesterJohn Steckdale, London, 1795https://archive.org/stream/b28404555#page/n7/mode/2up   Alison, Sir ArchibaldEngland in 1815 and 1845;Sigue leyendo «Works Consulted 18th and 19th Centuries»

Chapter 19. The Point of View of the Worker

Almost all the economic information and the descriptions of working life and daily life in this book, have been “external” to the worker, that is, they are collections of numerical data or optical observations, made by professional persons, farmers, landowners, and politicians. A small number come from agricultural labourers or industrial workers, interviewed by committeesSigue leyendo «Chapter 19. The Point of View of the Worker»

Chapter 18. Conclusions

Chapter 1: Contemporary Observations Comments from professional persons, farmers, and visitors are unanimous that there was a visible and continuous improvement in the incomes and living standards of the great majority of the population during this period.                                                                                                  This improvement may well have been equivalent to an increase in the real wages of 5 per centSigue leyendo «Chapter 18. Conclusions»

17.10. Contradictory «Optical» Assumptions

A large part of our vision of life in the period of the Industrial Revolution is that there were horrible sanitary and drainage conditions in the towns, and concurrently very high mortality rates for infants below 12 months and children of from 13 to 60 months old. We make the – apparently – “logical» jumpSigue leyendo «17.10. Contradictory «Optical» Assumptions»

17.9. Installation of Infrastructure without Charge to Wage-Earners

A number of improvements in the daily life of the working class were funded by the government, by private industry, or by rate-payers. Thus they are not visible in the long-term movements in the weekly wages. Another way of looking at this, is that they are included in the increase in Gross National Product, butSigue leyendo «17.9. Installation of Infrastructure without Charge to Wage-Earners»

17.8. Increase of the Services Sector

The percentage of male workers in the services sector increased from 15 % in 1770 to 22 % in 1860; probably the same movement took place as to the female workers. (The Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, The Occupational Structure of Britain 1379-1911; https://www.campop.geog.cam.ac.uk/research/occupations/overview/) These people are not included inSigue leyendo «17.8. Increase of the Services Sector»

17.7. The Textile Districts were not very large

Thus they did not impact the average growth of the country. In 1770, the number of families of agricultural labourers was 745,000, and of non-agricultural workers was 844,000; the cotton workers were 75,000, while solely the building artisans (carpenters, joiners, painters, bricklayers, stonemasons) were 118,000. In 1830, the cotton workers were 302,000 families (of whichSigue leyendo «17.7. The Textile Districts were not very large»