Chapter 16. Calculations of Movements in Nominal Wages, Cost of Living, and Real Wages

16.1. Wages in Non-Agricultural Occupations

16.2. Living Costs for Non-Agricultural Occupations

16.3. Expenses Indices, Agricultural and Non-Agricultural

16.4. Movements in Real Wages, Agricultural and Non-Agricultural

16.5. Wages, Expenses, and Real Wages, for Agricultural plus Non-Agricultural Occupations

16.6. Necessary Corrections

To calculate the average increases in earnings for people with continuous work, we first have to see the number of people per occupation, and their average weekly earnings. The inconvenient point about the following table, is that we should really be working with the division by people as per 1815, which is a medium date; however, there are no useful data about occupations before the Census of 1851. 

OccupationNumber of Persons
Av. Income
Total Income
(million sh./week)
Per cent of 15 occups.
Agricultural labourer 1,006,0001111.119.1 %
Cotton, calico,
manufacture, printing
501,000126.010.4 %
Labourer376,000155.69.6 %
Boot and shoe maker274,000154.17.1 %
Milliner, dressmaker, seamstress340,000103.45.8 %
Coal miner219,000122.64.5 %
Carpenter, joiner,
mason, bricklayer
351,000227.713.4 %
Tailor152,000365.59.5 %
Woollen cloth
137,000334.57.8 %
Silk manufacture114,000151.72.9 %
Worsted manufacture104,000151.62.8 %
Linen, flax manufacture98,000121.22.1 %
Iron manufacture,
moulder, founder
80,000252.03.4 %
Hose (stocking) manufacturer65,00070.50.8 %
Lace manufacture63,00080.50.8 %
Railways55,00000.00.0 %
TOTAL4,335,00015.058.0100.0 %

(Note: for the average nominal earnings per occupation, Feinstein – and thus also Allen – uses the job structure inside each segment as of 1881, and deflates backwards in time.)  

In this chapter we will make the necessary calculations for the totality of these non-agricultural occupations, and then add the data from previous chapters with regard to agricultural labourers.

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