9.3A. Consumption of Other Foods


Milk in London was supplied by 8,500 cows in 1794, and by 19,000 in 1860. These cows were kept in small milking units in Islington, Hackney, and Edgware Road in 1794, to which was added the district of Kensington by 1829. The mill was sold at 4 to 5 pence the quart. 

From before 1800, milk in Manchester was brought from special milk farms, at 3 to 10 miles distance. The transport was sometimes by horse and cart on main roads, but generally by canal. From 1840, the major part of the milk came from Cheshire by railway. The price at mid-century was 6 to 8 pence per gallon. The factory workers took about 1 ½ pints per capita per week. 

In England in 1750, there were 15,000 milk cows, producing 600 gallons each yearly; with a population of 6 millions, the consumption was 0.03 pint per person per day, or 12 calories per person per day. In 1800, the figures were 100,000 cows, population of 9 millions, 0.15 pint per person per day, 60 calories per person per day. In 1850, the figures were 150,000 cows, population of 18 millions, 0.11 pint per person per day, 45 calories per person per day.

Cheese and Butter

There was a certain increase in the quantities commercialised during the first half of the 19thcentury. The amounts eaten per person did not change much, cheese about 1 lb. per family a week (100 calories/ family member/ day), butter about 1/2 lb. (100 calories/ family member/ day).

Manchester bought a considerable amount of cheese and butter from farms in Cheshire. From 1800 the butter came in large quantities from Ireland, although this was of lesser quality and less fresh. 


Vegetables and fruits began to be of importance, at least in London and Lancashire, starting around 1750. The vegetables were generally turnips, carrots, onions, peas, and beans, and the common fruits sold were apples, pears, and cherries:

“The real recompence of labour, the real quantity of the necessaries and conveniences of life ….. has, during the course of the present century increased perhaps in a still greater proportion than in money price. Not only has grain become somewhat cheaper, but among many other things, from which the industrious poor derive an agreeable and wholesome variety of food, have become a great deal cheaper. Potatoes, for example, do not at present, through the greater part of the kingdom, cost half the price which they used to do thirty or forty years ago. The same thing may be said of turnips, carrots, cabbages; things which were formerly never raised but by the spade, but which are now commonly raised by the plough.”

(Adam Smith, economist, The Wealth of Nations, 1776, Book 1, Chapter 8, On the Wages of Labour)

“As to the produce of a garden, every middle-aged person of observation may perceive, within his own memory, both in town and country, how vastly the consumption of vegetables has increased. Green-stalls in cities now support multitudes in a comfortable state, while gardener get fortunes. Every decent labourer, also has his garden, which is half his support, as well as his delight; and common farmers provide plenty of beans, peas, and greens, for their hinds to eat with their bacon; and those few that do not are despised for their sordid parsimony, and looked upon as regardless of the welfare of their dependents. Potatoes have prevailed in this little district, by means of premiums, within these twenty years only, and are much esteemed now by the poor, who would scarce have ventured to taste them in the last reign.”

(Rev. Gilbert White, The Natural History of Selborne, first published 1789, Letter XXXIII, p. 233). 

Very large areas in Fulham, Chelsea and Barnes, and to the north of the built-up area of London, were used for vegetables and fruits. At the end of the nineteenth century, there were 5000 acres of market vegetables, 800 acres for fruit, 1700 for potatoes, and 1200 for vegetables for cattle. 

(General View of the former and present State of Market Gardens, and of the Quantity of Land now occupied for that Purpose within Twelve Miles of London, Daniel Lysons, 1796).

(Actually, in the first half of the nineteenth century, a huge arc, about 10 miles wide starting from the built-up area, and extending from a point north of the housing to reach the Thames at the height of Barnes and Chiswick, was fully dedicated to market gardens, milk farms, and brick-making sites)

Asparagus was sent by rail to Manchester from the 1840’s. Many different types of fruit were sent to other parts of the country by rail from Covent Garden. Starting from 1850, strawberries from Kent were sent out in refrigerated carriages to Yorkshire!


In London in 1860, very large quantities of fish and shellfish were sold. 


We have good figures for total consumption in the country, as all the quantities were imported (principally from the West Indies), so that we can make a calculation from the import duties. In 1750, the level of consumption was about 12 lb. per person per annum (50 calories/ family member/ day), in 1800 about 30 lb. (120 calories), and from 1820 to 1850 close to 20 lb. (80 calories). But note that a large disproportionate amount of sugar was used by the better classes, so that for the working classes we should use a multiplier of 60 % on the above figures

But since the main use was for the women of the working class to take the sugar with their tea, we may say that the women had perhaps 200 calories per day! According to the Rev. David Davies, his poor families used ¼ to ½ lb. per week.


According to Mr. George Porter, making a calculation based on the payments of the Malt Tax, the use of beer in 1849 was about 15 pints per family per week; since generally only the man drank the beer (although in the industrial districts, the wives also drank), this would be 150 to 200 calories for the man, averaged per day. (Porter, George Richardson, On the self-imposed Taxation of the Working Classes in the United Kingdom, Read before the Statistical Section of the British Association, August 1850).

The amounts had been about the same in 1801-1829. 


            The above figures translate to the following amounts of calories per average family member per day. The persons referenced are families of a man, a wife, and three children; the man has a constant employment, for wages.   
                                    2nd half             1st half              1st half      
                               18th Century    19th Century    19th Century                 
                                       Agricultural      Industrial 

Cereals                         1,850                1,500                1,500
Potatoes                            60                   200                   150
Meat                                  80                     80                   320
Milk                                    0                     20                     50
Cheese                           100                   100                   100
Butter                                50                     50                   100
Sugar                                50                   100                   100
Beer                               100                   150                   150
Fruit, Vegetables,            50                   100                   200
Fish and Shellfish,
Poultry and Eggs,
Wines and Spirits 

Total                            2,340                2,300                2,670            
The quality and diversity of the food improves – at least for the industrial worker’s family – by 1850. Nearly everyone now eats wheaten bread. The industrial workers eat much more meat. There is more fruit, vegetables, fish and shellfish, poultry and eggs.  


Clayton, Paul; Rowbotham, JudithHow the Mid-Victorians Worked, Ate and Died
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1660-4601,2009, 6, pp. 1235-1253 

Clayton, Paul; Rowbotham, JudithAn Unsuitable and Degraded Diet? Part One: Public Health Lessons from the Mid-Victorian Working Class Diet
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 2008, Jun 1, 101 (6), pp. 282-289

Part Two: Realities of the Mid-Victorian DietJournal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 2008, Jul 1, 101 (7), pp. 350-357https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2442131

Part Three: Victorian Consumption Patterns and their Health Benefits
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 2008, Sep 1, 101 (9), pp. 454-462

Greaves, Peter
Regional differences in the mid-Victorian diet and their impact on health
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Open; 9(3) 1–6

Scola, Roger
Feeding the Victorian City: The Food Supply of Manchester, 1770-1870
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1992
            To see if the food ingested gave sufficient calories for the physical work of a man, we have to convert the figures of “daily calories per average family member” to “daily calories per average father of the family”.             

For this calculation, we make use of the daily calorie requirements at different ages, as published by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration:      
Man     26-30 years     3,000 cals.            
Woman 26-30 years   2,000 cals.            
Child   8 years            1,800 cals.            
Child   6 years            1,600 cals.            
Child   4 years            1,400 cals.             

Total                           9,800 cals.             

So that instead of 20 % of the total calorie requirements, the man needs 30 % of the total. This means that we should multiply the average input of calories by a factor of 1.50.     
                            2nd half             1st half              1st half                                    
18th Century    19th Century    19th Century                                                       
      Agricultural     Industrial 

Total calories man    3,510               3,450               4,000 

Market Halls

In the first half of the nineteenth century, many large and medium towns in England built, at great expense, market halls, where the sellers of meat, fruit, and vegetables could have their stalls.

The predecessor was Sheffield in 1787. The building had space for: 53 butchers’ shops and 41 butchers’ stalls, 54 outside shops for shoemakers, breeches makers, clockmakers, staymakers, hucksters, hardwaremen, one bookbinder, one cabinet maker. In the semicircle were stalls occupied by 17 shoemakers, 8 breeches makers, 5 fishmongers and 5 fruiterers. 

(Mitchell, Ian; Tradition and Innovation in English Retailing, 1700 to 1850, Ashgate Publishing, Farnham, 2016, p. 33)

The first really large market hall was St. John’s Market in Liverpool, built in 1820-1822:

St. John’s Market, Liverpool, built 1820-1822, street view and interior view (Austin, Harwood, Pyne, Lancashire Illustrated, 1832, plates facing p. 25)

Page scan of sequence 130

(Anon., The Gentleman’s Magazine, vol. 132, 1822, before p. 113) 

“This stupendous building, designed by Mr. John Foster, junior, and erected by the corporation of Liverpool, at an expense of £ 35,000, was begun in August, 1820, and finished in February, 1822. …The length of the building, is 183 yards; its breadth, 45 yards, forming a covered space of 8,235 square yards, or nearly two statute acres [equal to two football pitches, laid end to end].  …. The whole floor is substantially flagged, and every person resorting to the market may walk, dry-footed, in every part of the building, alike protected from the cold and rain of the tempest, or the oppressive heat and glare of a summer sun. … The walls are lined by 62 shops and 6 offices, close to the lower tier of windows, between which and the upper ones the sloping roofs of the shops are placed. The shops, the dimensions of which are 6 yards by 4, and which are provided with fire-places, are let to dealers in various kinds of provision, namely, butchers, pork-dealers, fruiterers, fishmongers, poulterers, cheesemongers, bread-bakers, &c., and are numbered. …. The great body of the market is occupied by four ranges of stalls, tables, &c., running in a line with the pillars from end to end, including 160 stalls, three yards each, for purposes the same as the shops; 34 green-standings, three yards each, 18 fruit-standings, three yards each, 44 stone compartments, three yards each, for potatoes; 36 fish-standings, one and a half yards each; 201 table-compartments, one yard each, for eggs, poultry, and vegetables; and 122 forms or benches, one yard each, for similar articles. There are 144 gas-lights, by which the place is brilliantly illuminated every night; …..”

(Kaye, 1823, pp. 179-182)

            Manchester, in the first half of the 19th century, did not have a central market hall, but ten markets, one for each type of food. “On every day in the week, except Sunday, provisions are to be purchased. Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, are the principal flesh-market days. The last exhibits an abundance of provisions of every description, which never fails to surprise strangers, not only as to its collection, but as to its probable sale. The quantity of butcher’s meat sold every Saturday is almost beyond belief; and as for quality, it is universally allowed to be equal, at least, to that exposed for sale in any market in the united kingdom [sic].”

(Joseph Aston, A Picture of Manchester, 3rd Edition 1826, pp. 236-240)     

The Market Hall in Birmingham, built in 1835, was 365 feet long and 108 feet wide, with 600 market stalls:

Birmingham Market Hall, Photograph c. 1870, Notes from 19th Century Birmingham, https://Birminghamhistoryblog.wordpress.com/tag/market-hall

Other Market Halls built during our period were: Rochdale 1823, enlarged 1844, 24 shops and 180 stalls; Ashton 1828 (*); Stalybridge 1831, expanded 1843; Bury 1839, 32,000 sq. ft; Oldham 1856; Bolton 1853, 600 stalls and shops (*); Burnley 1829; Salford 1825; Blackburn 1848;  Birkenhead 1845 (12 butchers’ shops, 26 butchers’ stalls, 20 vegetable stands, 8 fish shops, 6 game shops, 8 provisions shops, 8 pedlars’ shops, 7 pedlars’ stands, 8 flower stands, 76 farmers’ tables, 7 rabbit and tripe stands, and 48 vaults).   

(Schmiechen, 2016, pp. 190-191)

Grainger Market Hall in Newcastle, built in 1835, was the largest in Britain, with more than two acres, 337 x 241 ft, 243 shops and stalls (*).

(William Collard and M. Ross, Architectural and Picturesque Views of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1841, pp. 88-91, with plan and six plates)

The wages in Newcastle were high: common labourers had on average 18 shillings per week, the skilled labourers from 25 to 40 shillings (Cargill, 1838, p. 361).

(*) Still in use – refurbished – as indoor food markets or as shopping centres.

From the size of the buildings it is very clear, that the users were not just servants sent by the better class families; they were the totality of the working people of the town. This means that the working class in these towns had a diet of considerable quantities of meat, fish, cheese, vegetables, fruit, potatoes and eggs.

It would be nice to be have an idea of the increase in the numbers of shops in our period, so as to have another input as to the volume of food and other articles bought. But this information does not exist. What we can do, as a matter of illustration, is to give the number and type of shops in representative provincial towns, for example in 1828-29.

Boston, Lincolnshire, population 10,300: 

Academies and Public Schools 25; Bakers & Flour Dealers 30; Blacksmiths 20; Booksellers & Stationers 7; Boot & Shoemakers 25; Butchers 50; Grocers & Tea Dealers 20; Linen & Woollen Drapers 10; Milliners & Dress Makers 12; Plumbers, Glaziers and Painters 10; Shopkeepers & Dealers in Sundries 30; Tailors 20; Taverns & Public Houses 40; Watch & Clock Makers 10.

The commercial activities of the inhabitants are:

“The enclosure of the fens has tended most materially to the increase of the commercial importance of Boston, by causing immense quantities of grain to be brought into its market; and the subsequent shipment of this grain to London and other places gives employment to an increased quantity of shipping. Of late years, too, there has been a growing trade to the Baltic; a very considerable trade also is carried on with the interior of the kingdom, by means of the Witham and the various navigable canals with which it communicates; and manufactures have gained some footing in the town, consisting of sackings, canvas, sail cloth and lace; besides which, there are iron and brass foundries on a large scale”.

(Pigot, 1829, pp. 509-513) 

Carlisle, population 15,500:

Academies & Schools 40; Bakers & Flour Dealers 15; Blacksmiths 20; Booksellers, Stationers and Binders 5; Boot and Shoe Makers 38; Butchers 35; Cabinet Makers & Joiners 20; Clog and Patten Makers 10; Grocers & Tea Merchants 40; Linen & Woollen Drapers 20; Milliners & Dress Makers 20; Painters and Glaziers 10; Shopkeepers and Dealers in Sundries 140; Straw Hat Makers 10; Tailors 35; Taverns & Public Houses 150; Tea and Coffee Dealers 10; Watch & Clock Makers 7.

The commercial activities are:

“The manufactures brought to perfection in Carlisle are of an important character; they embrace the weaving of checks and ginghams, and other cotton fabrics, calico printing, and the manufacture of cotton twist, much of which is exported. Hats are also made here of a superior quality; there are also extensive dye-works, and three iron foundries upon a large scale, but the cotton trade is by far of the greatest consequence to the manufacturing interest here.”

(Pigot, 1829, pp. 67-73)

We see that there are a large number of different shops, which obviously means that the inhabitants are financially able to buy these articles. The commercial activities show that there is a large amount of employment in the towns, which does not have a connection with factories.  



Map of Lancashire, Aikin, 1795

Map of West Riding of Yorkshire, Aikin, 1795

Petermanns Maps of the British Empire. Statistical Geography. To Her Most Excellent Majesty Queen Victoria, This Map of the British Isles elucidating the Distribution of the Population based of the Census of 1841 / compiled and drawn by Augustus Petermann, .. . is... dedicated By The Author

Map British Isles, Distribution of the Population, 1841

Map England and Wales, Distribution of the Population, Census 1851

Map England and Wales, Distribution of the Occupations of the People, Census 1851


Plan of Manchester, 1841, Pigot’s Commercial Directory of Manchester

Marx & Engels Collected Works: Volume 04

Map of Manchester, Engels, 1844

Celebrating #MapMonday with a map of religions in Liverpool, 1858 ...

Abraham Hume, Rev., Map of Liverpool, Ecclesiastical and Social, 1858

The expanded version shows the streets with extreme poverty  

Liverpool, 1859, part of Birkenhead, the docks, and Cheshire coast, John R. Isaac

Leeds, sanitary map, cholera epidemic, made in 1832 by Dr. Robert Baker; presented in “Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population”, Edwin Chadwick, 1842.

(the houses drawn in dark colour are those of the working classes; the square objects with smoke are the textile mills; the blue spots are localities of cholera cases in 1832; the red spots are localities with contagious diseases in 1834 to 1839; the “less cleansed” districts are painted over in dark brown)

Smith’s Railway Map, 1836

Science Museum, London

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Clark, Gregory; Page, Marianne
Welfare Reform, 1834
Department of Economics, UC-Davis, May 2008
Clayton, Paul; Rowbotham, Judith
How the Mid-Victorians Worked, Ate and Died
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1660-4601, 2009, 6,
pp. 1235-1253 
Clayton, Paul; Rowbotham, Judith
An Unsuitable and Degraded Diet? Part One: Public Health Lessons from the Mid-Victorian Working Class Diet
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 2008, Jun 1, 101 (6), pp. 282-289
Part Two: Realities of the Mid-Victorian Diet
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 2008, Jul 1, 101 (7), pp. 350-357
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2442131Part Three: Victorian Consumption
Patterns and their Health Benefits
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 2008, Sep 1, 101 (9), pp. 454-462
Cobden Unwin, Jane
The Hungry Forties: Life under the Bread Tax
T. Fisher Unwin, London, 1904
Coleman, Terry
The Railway Navvies
Head of Zeus, London, 2015 (first published 1965)
Collier, Frances
The Family Economy of the Working Classes in the Cotton Industry, 1784-1833
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1964
Collins, E. J. T.
Harvest Technology and Labour Supply in Britain, 1790-1870
Thesis submitted to the University of Nottingham for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy,
May 1970
Collins, E. J. T.
Dietary Change and Cereal Consumption in Britain in the Nineteenth Century
The Agricultural History Review, Vol. 23, No. 2 (1975), pp. 97-115
Collins, E. J. T.
The Rationality of “Surplus” Agricultural Labour: Mechanization in English Agriculture in the Nineteenth Century
The Agricultural History Review, Vol. 35, No. 1 (1987), pp. 36-46
Cookson, Gillian
The West Yorkshire Textile Engineering Industry, 1750-1850
Submitted for the Degree of D. Phil, University of York, Department of Economics and Related Studies, July 1994
Cooley, Colin G.; Turnbull, Jean
Migration and Mobility in Britain from the Eighteenth to Twentieth Centuries
Centre for Social History, Leicester University, 1996
Coss, Edward J.
All for the King’s Shilling: The British Soldier under Wellington, 1808-1814
University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, 2010
Crafts, Nicholas; Wolf, Nicholaus
The Location of the UK Cotton Textiles Industry in 1838: a Quantitative Analysis
EHES Working Papers in Economic History, No.45, September 2013
European Historical Economics Society
Crafts, Nicholas
Slow Real Wage Growth during the Industrial Revolution: Productivity Paradox or Pro-Rich Growth?CAGE Working Paper no. 474, May 2020
Crompton, D. G.
Industrialisation, Population Change and Patterns of Disease and Mortality in Wigan 1800-1850
Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation, Manchester University, 2011
Cuca, James R.
Industrial Change and the Progress of Labor in the English Cotton Industry
International Review of Social History, Vol. 22, No. 2 (1977), pp. 241-255
Darby, Henry Clifford (ed.)
New Historical Geography of England after 1600
University of Cambridge, Cambridge, 1973
Darra Mair, L. W., Dr.
A Report on Relative Mortality in Through and Back-to-Back Houses in certain Towns in the West Riding of Yorkshire
Local Government Board
His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1910
Davenport, Romola J.
Urbanization and Mortality in Britain, c. 1800-50
Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, Department of Geography,
University of Cambridge
Economic History Review, 73, 2 (2020), pp. 455-485
Davies, Julian Paul
Artisans and the City: A Social History of Bristol’s Shoemakers and Tailors, 1770-1800
A Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Arts of the University of Bristol for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
Department of Historical Studies, Faculty of Arts, The University of Bristol, June 2003
D’cruze, Shani  
Care, diligence and ‘usfull pride’ [sic]: gender, industrialisation and the domestic economy,
c. 1770 to c. 1840
Women’s History Review, 1994, 3:3, pp. 315-345
Deane, Phyllis
Contemporary Estimates of National Income in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century 
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 8, No. 3 (1956), pp. 339-354
Contemporary Estimates of National Income in the Second Half of the Nineteenth Century 
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 9, No. 3 (1957), pp. 451-461
Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage Site
History & Development; Communities
Dockerill, Bertie
Liverpool Corporation and the Origins of Municipal Social Housing, 1842-1890
Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 165 (2016), December 2016,
pp. 39-56
Douglas, Ian; Hodgson, Ron; Lawson, Nigel
Industry, Environment and Health through 200 Years in Manchester
Special Section: European Environmental History and Ecological Economics
Ecological Economics 41 (2002), pp. 235-255
Duggan, Ed
The Impact of Industrialization on an Urban Labour Market: Birmingham, England, 1770-1860
Thesis for Dissertation for D. Phil, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1972 
Short commentary by the author:
Edward P. Duggan
The Impact of Industrialization on an Urban Labor Market: Birmingham, England,1770-1860
The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 34, No. 1, The Tasks of Economic History (Mar., 1974),
pp. 279-282
Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Economic History Association
Eccleston, Bernard
A Survey of Wages Rates in Five Midland Counties, 1750-1834
Thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Leicester, September, 1976
Errazurez, A.
Some Types of Housing in Liverpool 1785-1890
The Town Planning Review, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Spring, 1946), pp. 57-68
Liverpool University Press
Essex University
The Online Historical Reports Website
Evans, Christopher
Work and Authority in an Iron Town: Merthyr Tydfil, 1760 – c. 1815
Thesis presented for the Degree of Ph. D. in the Faculty of Arts, University of London, 1988 
Fairlie, Susan
The Corn Laws and British Wheat Production, 1829-76
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Apr. 1969), pp. 88-116
Feinstein, Charles H.
Conjectures and Contrivances: Economic Growth and the Standard of Living in Britain
during the Industrial Revolution
All Souls College, Oxford, 1996
Feinstein, Charles H.
Pessimism Perpetuated: Real Wages and the Standard of Living in Britain during and
after the Industrial Revolution
Journal of Economic History, 58 (1998), pp. 625-658
Feinstein, Charles H.
Wage-earnings in Great Britain during the Industrial Revolutionin:
Applied Economics and Public Policy(ed.) Iain Begg, S. G. B. Henry
Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998 
Field, Jacob F.
Service, gender and wages in England, c. 1700 – 1860
Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, University of Cambridge
Economic History Society Conference, 2010, Durham
Flavell, Neville
The Economic Development of Sheffield and the Growth of the Town, c.1740 – c.1820
PhD The Division of Adult Continuing Education, University of Sheffield, February 1966
Floud, Roderick; Wachter, Kenneth W.; Gregory, Annabel
The Physical State of the British Working Class, 1870-1914: Evidence from Army Recruits
NBER Working Paper 1661, July 1985
Floud, Roderick Long-term Changes in Nutrition, Welfare and Productivity in Britain: Physical and Socio-economic Characteristics of Recruits to the Army and Royal Marines, 1760-1879 [computer file],
UK Data Archive, Essex, July 1986. SN = 2131
Floud, Roderick; Wachter, Kenneth; Gregory, Annabel
Height, Health and History: Nutritional Status in the United Kingdom, 1750-1980
Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time
Cambridge University, Cambridge, 1990
Floud, Roderick
Height, Weight and Body Mass of the British Population since 1820
NBER Working Paper Series on Historical Factors in Long Run Growth
Historical Paper 108, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1998
Floud, Roderick; Fogel, Robert, W.; Harris, Bernard; Hong, Sok Chul (2011) 
Diet, Health and Work intensity in England and Wales, 1700-1914
Working paper 15875, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, April 2010
Floud, Roderick; Fogel, Robert W., Harris, Bernard; Hong, Sok Chul
The Changing Body: Health, Nutrition and Human Development in the Western World since 1700
New Approaches to Economic and Social History
National Bureau of Economic Research; Cambridge University Press, 2011
Floud, Roderick; Wachter, Kenneth W.
Poverty and Physical Stature: Evidence on the Standard of Living of London Boys 1770-1870
Social Science History, Vol. 6, No. 4, Trends in Nutrition, Labor, Welfare, and Labor Productivity
(Autumn, 1982), pp. 422-452
Foster, John
Class Struggle and the Industrial Revolution: Early Industrial Capitalism in three Industrial Towns
Methuen, London, 2005
Fox, Alan 
Industrial Relations in Nineteenth-Century Birmingham
Oxford Economic Papers (1955) VII (1), pp. 57-70
Fox, Norman E.
Berkshire to Botany Bay: The 1830 Labourers’ Revolt in Berkshire: Its Causes and Consequences
Littleford Publishing, London, 1995
French, Henry
An Irrevocable Shift: Detailing the Dynamics of Rural Poverty in Southern England, 1762-1834:
A Case Study
The Economic History Review, Vol. 68, Issue 3, pp. 769-805, 2015
Friswell, Caroline A.
Did King Dirt and Bumbledom defeat the Objects of the Public Health Act, 1848?;
a Case Study of the Political, Social and Cultural Attitudes to Public Health Reform in
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Gateshead and Sunderland, 1835-1858
Thesis submitted for PhD, University of Durham, Department of History
Galbi, Douglas A.
Child Labor and the Division of Labor in the Early English Cotton Mills
Centre for History and Economics, King’s College, CambridgeJournal of Population Economics
(1997) 10: pp. 357-375
García Montero, Hector
Estatura y Niveles de Vida en la España Interior, 1765-1840
(Height and Living Standards in the Central Regions of Spain, 1765-1840)
Tésis Doctoral, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, 201
Gash, N.
Rural Unemployment, 1815-34
The Economic History Review, Vol. 6, No. 1 (Oct. 1935), pp. 90-93
Gazeley, Ian; Verdon, Nicola
The First Poverty Line? Davies and Eden’s Investigation of Rural Poverty in late 18th-Century
Explorations in Economic History, 51, pp. 94-108
Gehrmann, Rolf
Säuglingssterblichkeit in Deutschland im 19. Jahrhundert
(Infant Mortality Rate in Germany in the 19th Century)
Comparative Population Studies – Zeitschrift für Bevölkerungswissenschaft,Jg. 36, 4 (2011):
pp. 807-838. 
Gendron, John Henry
An Investigation into Great Britain’s Commercial Crisis of 1857 and the Preceding Business Cycle
Presentation of forthcoming Master’s Thesis, Providence College, 2012
German, Frank Clifford
Migration, Work and Housing, Northampton, 1841-1871
Submitted to University College, London, for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Geography,
Gilboy, Elizabeth W.
Wages in Eighteenth Century England
President and Fellows of Harvard College
Humphrey Milford / Oxford University Press, London, 1934
Gilboy, Elizabeth W.
The Cost of Living and Real Wages in Eighteenth Century England
The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Aug., 1936), pp. 134-143
The MIT Press
Ginswick, Jules
Labour and the Poor in England and Wales 1849-1851, Letters to the Morning Chronicle
from Correspondents
Vol. 1, Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire
Vol. 3, The Mining and Manufacturing Districts of South Wales and North Wales
Frank Cass, London, 1983
Godfrey, Barry; Shoemaker, Robert; Hitchcock, Tim; Oxley, Deborah; Maxwell-Stewart, Hamish
Digital Panopticon
Gournish, T. R.
The Cost of Living in Glasgow in the Early Nineteenth Century
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Feb., 1972), pp. 65-80
Gowland, Rebecca L.; Caffell, Anwen; Newman, Sophie et al.
Broken Childhoods: Rural and Urban non-adult Health during the Industrial Revolution in Northern England (eighteenth-nineteenth centuries)
Bioarchaeology International, 2018, pp. 44-62
Greaves, Peter
Regional differences in the mid-Victorian diet and their impact on health
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Open; 9(3) 1–6
Greaves, Peter
Impact of Diet on Health and Longevity in London, 1850-1880
Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Open; 9(3) 1–6, 2020
Green, David R.
From Artisans to Paupers: Economic Change and Poverty in London, 1790-1870
Scolar Press, Aldershot, Hampshire, 1995
Greenfield, Jill
Gender and Technology in the East Midlands Boot and Shoe Industry
Submitted for the Degree of Ph. D., Centre for the Study of Women and Gender,
University of Warwick, March 1998
Griffin, Carl J.
“As Lated Tongues Bespoke’: Popular Protest in South-East England, 1790-1840”
A dissertation submitted to the University of Bristol in accordance with the requirements of the degree of Ph D in the Faculty of Social Sciences, November 2001
Griffin, Emma
Liberty’s Dawn: A People’s History of the Industrial Revolution
Yale University Press, New Haven, Massachusetts, 2013
Griffin, Emma
Diets, Hunger and Living Standards during the British Industrial Revolution
Past & Present, Volume 239, Issue 1, May 2018, pp. 71-111
Griffiths, Sarah
Businessmen and Benefactors: The Macclesfield silk manufacturers and their support for the town’s charitable institutions, 1750-1900
Journal of the Historical Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, vol. 157 (2008),
pp. 67-91
Hamlin, C.
Could you starve to Death in England in 1839? The Chadwick-Farr Controversy and the Loss of
“Social” in Public Health
American Journal of Public Health, 1995 June, 85 (6), pp. 856-866
Hammond, J. L., Hammond, Barbara
The Village Labourer, 1760-1832: a Study of the Government of England before the Reform Bill,
Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1912
Hammond, J. L., Hammond, Barbara
The Town Labourer, 1760-1832: The New Civilization
Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1917
Hammond, J. L., Hammond, Barbara
The Skilled Labourer, 1760-1832
Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1919
Hampson, Peter Wright
Working-Class Capitalists: the Development and Financing of Worker-Owned Companies,
in the Irwell Valley, 1849-1875
Doctoral Thesis, University of Central Lancashire
Hampson, Peter Wright
Working-class Women Shareholders in mid-nineteenth Century Lancashire
Journal of the Historic Society of Lancashire & Cheshire, Vol. 165 (2016), pp. 79-98
Hardy, Anne
Urban Famine or Urban Crisis? Typhus in the Victorian City
Medical History, 1988 Oct., 32 (4), pp. 401-425
Harley, C. Knick
Cotton Textile Prices and the Industrial Revolution
Department of Economics Research Reports, 9415, University of Western Ontario, 1994
Harley, C. Knick
Prices and Profits in Cotton Textiles during the Industrial Revolution
Discussion Papers in Economic and Social History
University of Oxford, Number 81, May 2010
Harley, Joseph
Material Lives of the Poor and their strategic Use of the Workhouse during the final Years of the
English Poor Law
Continuity and Change 30 (1), 2015, pp. 71-103
Harris, Bernard; Floud, Roderick; Fogel, Robert W.; Hong, Sok Chul
Diet, Health and Work Intensity in England and Wales, 1700-1914
Working Paper w15875, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2010
Harris, Bernard; Floud, Roderick; Hong, Sok Chul
How Many Calories? Food Availability in England and Wales in the 18th and 19th Centuries
Research in Economic History, vol. 31 (2015), pp. 111-191
Harris, Bernard
Food Supply, Health and Economic Development in England and Wales during the eighteenth and nineteenth Centuries
Scientia Danica, Series H, Humanistica. 4, 7, 2016, pp. 141-154
Harris, Bernard
Anthropometric History and the Measurement of Wellbeing
Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, 19 (2021)
Harrison, Joanne
The Origin, Development, and Decline of Back-to-Back Houses in Leeds, 1787-1937
Industrial Archaeology Review, Volume 39, 2017, Issue 2, pp. 101-116
Hart, Rosine
Weavers of Profit: Terminating Building Societies in Lancashire, 1780-1840
Financial History Review, Cambridge University Press, Vol. 16(01), April 2009, pp. 27-45
Hartwell, R. M. 
The Rising Standard of Living in England, 1800-1850
The Economic History Review, New Series, Volume 13, Issue 3 (1961), pp. 397-416
Hartwell, R. M. 
The Standard of Living: II. By R. M. Hartwell
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 16, No. 1 (1963), pp. 135-146
Haslett, John; Lowe, W. J.
Household Structure and Overcrowding among the Lancashire Irish
Preliminary Discussion for a Dissertation, University of Dublin
38638-Article Text-46108-1-10-20140508.pdf
Hayman, Richard
The Shropshire Wrought-Iron Industry, c. 1600-1900: A Study of Technological Change
Thesis submitted to the University of Birmingham for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy,
July 2003
Haynes, Mike
The Evolution of the Economy of the West Midlands, 1700-2007
University of Wolverhampton Business School, 2008
Hayton, Sandra
A Search for the Underclass: A Comparative Study of Cellar Dwellers in Manchester, Salford,
Stockport and Rochdale, 1861-1871
For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Salford, Department of Politics and
Contemporary History, 1995
Healy, M. J. R.; Jones, E. L.
Wheat Yields in England, 1815-59
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A (General), Vol. 125, No. 4 (1962), pp. 574-579
Hennock, E. P. 
The Origin of the Welfare State in England and Germany, 1850-1914: Social Policies compared
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007
Higgs, Edward
Domestic Servants and Households in Rochdale, 1851-1871
Routledge, Abingdon, 1986
Hill, Bridget 
Servants: English Domestics in the Eighteenth Century
Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1996
Hill, Judith
Poverty, Unrest and the Response in Surrey, 1815-1834
Doctoral Thesis, Roehampton University, 2006
Historic England
The Textile Mills of Lancashire: The Legacy
Oxford Archaeology North
Hobsbawm, E. J.
The Standard of Living during the Industrial Revolution: A Discussion: I. By E. J. Hobsbawm
The Economic History Review, New Series, Volume 16, Issue 1 (1963), pp. 119-134
Hobsbawm, E. J.
The British Standard of Living, 1790-1850
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 10, No. 1 (1957), pp. 46-68
Hobsbawm, Eric; Rudé, George
Captain Swing
Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1969
Honeyman, Katrina
Child Workers in England, 1780–1820: Parish Apprentices and the Making of the Industrial Labour Force
Ashgate, Aldershot, Hampshire, 2007
Hopkins, Eric
Working Hours and Conditions during the Industrial Revolution: A Re-Appraisal
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Feb., 1982), pp. 52-66
Hopkins, Eric
Working-Class Housing in Birmingham during the Industrial Revolution
International Review of Social History, Vol 31, No. 1 (1986), pp. 80-94
Hopkins, Eric
Childhood Transformed: Working-class Children in Nineteenth-century England
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1994
Horrell, Sara; Humphries, Jane
Old Questions, New Data, and Alternative Perspectives: Families’ Living Standards in the Industrial Revolution
The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 52, No. 4 (Dec., 1992), pp. 849-880
Horrell, Sara; Humphries, Jane; Weale, Martin
An Input-Output Table for 1841
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 47, No. 3 (Aug., 1994), pp. 545-566
Horrell, Sara; Humphries, Jane; Vogt, Hans-Joachim
Stature and Relative Deprivation: Fatherless Children in Early Industrial Britain
Continuity and Change 13 (I), 1998, pp. 73-115
Horrell, Sara; Humphries, Jane, Weisdorf, Jacob
Family Standards of Living over the Long Run, England, 1280-1850
Past and Present, no. 250 (Feb. 2021)
Howe, Anthony
The Hungry Forties
Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of East Anglia, 2016
Howe, Ellic
The London Compositor: Documents relating to Wages, Working Conditions and Customs of the
London Printing Trade, 1785-1900
Bibliographical Society, 1947, London 
Howell, David W.
Land and People in Nineteenth Century Wales
Routledge Library, The Victorian World, Abingdon, 1977
Huberman, Michael
Industrial Relations in the Industrial Revolution: Evidence from M’Connel and Kennedy 1810-1840
The Business History Review, Vol. 65, No. 2 (Summer 1991), pp. 345-378
Huck, Paul
Infant Mortality and Living Standards of English Workers During the Industrial Revolution
The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 55, No. 3 (Sep., 1995), pp. 528-550
Hudson, Pat
Regions and Industries: A Perspective on the Industrial Revolution in Britain
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989 
Humphreys, Valerie
An Examination of the Halifax Textile Industry in a Period of intense Technological Change,
1700 to 1850
Offered for the Degree of Ph. D., in the discipline of History, 31st December 1988
Humphries, Jane
Childhood and Child Labour in the British Industrial Revolution
Cambridge Studies in Economic History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010
Humphries, Jane
The Lure of Aggregates and the Pitfalls of the Patriarchal Perspective: a Critique of the High Wage Economy Interpretation of the British Industrial Revolution 
The Economic History Review, Vol. 66, No. 3 (August 2013), pp. 693-714
Humphries, Jane; Weisdorf, Jacob
The Wages of Women in England, 1260-1850
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, Oxford; 
Oxford Economic and Social History Working Papers (Number 127), March 2014
Hunt, Christopher John
The economic and social conditions of lead miners in the Northern Pennines in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
Thesis submitted for the Degree of M. Litt. of the University of Durham, 1968
Hunt-Watts, Holly Jill
Food and Nutrient Intake in Low-Income Families: A Comparative Study
Ph. D. Thesis, University of Leeds, 2018
ifo Institute
iPEHD The ifo Prussian Economic History Database
Inter-departmental Committee on Physical Deterioration
His Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1904
Inwood, Kris; Kippen, Rebecca; Maxwell-Stewart, Hamish; Steckel, Richard
The Short and the Tall: Comparing Stature and Socioeconomic Status for Male Prison and Military Populations
Project Muse Social Science History, Volume 44, Number 3, Fall 2020, pp. 463-483
Cambridge University Press
Ittmann, Karl
The Worsted Trade and the Development of Bradford
Chapter 1 of: Work, Gender, and Family in Victorian England, Macmillan Press, Basingstoke, 2016
Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust
“The Darby family cared about its workers, between 1700 and 1860”
Jaadla, Hannaliis; Shaw-Taylor, Leigh; Davenport, Romola
Height and Health in late eighteenth-century England 
Population Studies, A Journal of Demography, published online 29th September 2020
Jackson, John T.
Nineteenth-Century Housing in Wigan and St. Helens
Journal of the Historic Society of Lancashire & Cheshire, Vol. 129 (1979)
Jennings, Sheila Ann
A Ravelled Skein: The Silk Industry in South West Hertfordshire, 1790-1890
Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the University of Hertfordshire for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, July 2002
Johnson, Paul; Nicholas, Stephen
Health and Welfare of Women in the United Kingdom, 1785-1920
In: Richard H. Steckel and Roderick Floud, Health and Welfare during Industrialization, 1997
Johnstone, Christine
The Standard of Living of Worsted Workers in Keighley during the Nineteenth Century
A thesis presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy to the University of York
(Department of Economics and Related Studies), September 1976
Jones, E. L.
The Agricultural Labour Market in England, 1793-1872
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 17, No. 2 (1964), pp. 322-338
Jones, Gareth Stedman
Outcast London, A Study in the Relationship between Classes in Victorian Society
 Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1971
Kaijage, Frederick James
Labouring Barnsley, 1816-1856: A Social and Economic History
Thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Centre for the Study of
Social History, the University of Warwick, September 1975
Karn, M. N.
Summary of Results of Investigations into the Height and Weight of Children of the British Working Classes during the last Hundred Years
Annals of Human Genetics (1936), Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kasuga, Ayuka
Views of Smoke in England, 1800-1830
Thesis submitted to the University of Nottingham for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
School of Geography, University of Nottingham, December 2013
Keibeck, Sebastiaan, A. J.
The Male Occupational Structure of England and Wales, 1600-1850
Dissertation submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Faculty of History,
University of Cambridge, December 2016
Kelly, Morgan; Ó Gráda, Cormac
Numerare est Errare: Agricultural Output and Food Supply in England before and during the Industrial Revolution
The Journal of Economic History, 2013, vol. 73, issue 4, pp. 1132-1163
Kelly, Morgan; Ó Gráda, Cormac
Adam Smith, Watch Prices, and the Industrial Revolution
The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Volume 131, Issue 4, November 2016, pp. 1727-1752
Kenny, Stephen
The Location and Organisation of the Early Lancashire Cotton Industry: A Systems Approach
Manchester Geographer, 3 (1982), pp. 5-27
Kingsford, P. W.
Victorian Railwaymen: The Emergence and Growth of Railway Labour, 1830-1870
Routledge, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, 2006
Kirby, Peter Thomas
Aspects of the Employment of Children in the British Coal-Mining Industry, 1800-1872
Thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Department of History, University of Sheffield, 1995
Kirby, Peter Thomas
Child Workers and Industrial Health in Britain, 1780-1850
Chapter 3: Certifying Surgeons, Children’s Ages and Physical Growth
The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, 2013
Statistics: Anthropometric Data relating to Working-class Children, 1841
Kirby, R. G; Musson, A. E.
Voice of the People: John Doherty, 1798-1854: Trade Unionist, Radical and Factory Reformer
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1975
Kitson, P. M. et al.
The creation of a ‘census’ of adult male employment for England and Wales for 1817
Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 
Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, 2012
Kitson Clark, G.
Hunger and Politics in 1842
The Journal of Modern History, Vol. 25, No. 4 (Dec., 1953), pp. 355-374
Knowles, L. C. A.
The Industrial and Commercial Revolutions in Great Britain during the Nineteenth Century
G. Routledge & Sons, London, 1922
Koditschek, Theodore
Class Formation and Urban Industrial Society: Bradford, 1750-1850
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1990 
Komlos, John
Shrinking in a Growing Economy? The Mystery of Physical Stature during the Industrial Revolution 
The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 58, No. 3 (Sep. 1998), pp. 779-802; www.jstor.org/stable/2566624
Komlos, John; Küchenhoff, Helmut
The Diminution of the Physical Stature of the English Male Population in the eighteenth Century
Cliometrica, 2012, 6; pp. 45-62 
Lack, Katharine Joan
Family Dispersal in Rural England: Herefordshire, 1700-1871
Thesis submitted to the University of Birmingham for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy,
March 2012
Lane, Joseph Peter
Networks, Innovation and Knowledge: The North Staffordshire Potteries, 1750-1851
A Thesis submitted in the Department of Economic History of the London School of Economics for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, London, September 2017
Lane, Penelope
Women in the Regional Economy: The East Midlands, 1700-1830
Thesis submitted for the degree of Ph.D., University of Warwick, Department of History, 1999
Large, David; Round, Frances
Public Health in mid-nineteenth Century Bristol
Bristol Branch of the Historical Association, Bristol University, 1974
Lawton, R.
The Population of Liverpool in the mid-nineteenth Century
Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Vol. 107, 1955
Lawton, R.
Population Trends in Lancashire and Cheshire from 1801
Transactions of the Historical Society of Lancashire & Cheshire, Vol. 114, 1962
Laxton, P. 
Liverpool in 1801: a Manuscript Return for the first National Census of Population
Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, vol. 130 (1980)
Lazonick, William
Competitive Advantage on the Shop Floor
Edward Elgar, London, 1992, p. 81
Lee, Clive Howard
A Cotton Enterprise, 1795-1840: A History of M’Connel & Kennedy Fine Cotton Spinners
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1972
Lemire, Beverly
The British Cotton Industry and Domestic Market: Trade and Fashion in an early Industrial Society, 1750-1800
Submitted in fulfillment of requirements for the Degree of D. Phil., Faculty of Modern History, Balliol College, Oxford, Trinity Term, 1984
Leunig, Timothy
Time is Money: A Re-Assessment of the Passenger Social Savings from Victorian British Railways
Journal of Economic History, 66 (3), 2006, pp. 635-673
Lilley, Suzanne
“Cottoning On” to Workers’ Housing: A Historical Archaeology of Industrial Accommodation in
the Derwent Valley
PhD Thesis, University of York, 2015
Lindert, Peter H. and Jeffrey G. Williamson
Revising England’s Social Tables 1688-1812
Explorations in Economic History, 19, pp. 385-402 (1982)
Lindert, Peter H. and Jeffrey G. Williamson
English Workers’ Living Standards during the Industrial Revolution: a New Look
The Economic History Review, Second Series, Volume XXXVI, No.1, February 1983
Lipson, Ephraim
The History of the Woollen and Worsted Industries
Ephraim Lipson, Frank Cass & Co. London, 1965 (first published in 1921)
Lowe, W. J.
The Irish in Lancashire: a Social History, 1846-71
Unpublished PhD. Thesis, University of Dublin, 1974 
Lowe TCD THESIS 1051 The Irish in.pdf
Lucas, Robin
The Tax on Bricks and Tiles, 1784-1850
Construction History, Vol. 13, 1997
Lyons, John S.
Powerloom Profitability and Steam Power Costs: Britain in the 1830s
Explorations in Economic History 24(4), October 1987, pp. 392-408
MacGillivray, Neil
Food, Poverty and Endemic Disease, Edinburgh, 1840-1850
Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Edinburgh, 2003
Major, Susan
The Million Go Forth: Early Railway Excursion Crowds, 1840-1860
Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of York, Railway Studies,
August 2012
Makepeace, Margaret
The East India Company’s London Workers: Management of the Warehouse Labourers, 1800-1858
The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2010
Short description in:Economic History Society Conference April 2011
Maltby, Josephine
The Wife’s Administration of the Earnings? Working-Class Women and Savings in the Mid-Nineteenth Century
Working Paper 43, ISSN Number 1743-4041, February 2009, University of York, The York Management School
Manchester Corporation Transport Department
A Hundred Years of Road Passenger Transport in Manchester
Mapes, Philippa
The English Wallpaper Trade, 1750-1830
Thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Leicester University,
February 2016
Mason, Nicholas
“The Sovereign People are in a Beastly State”: The Beer Act of 1830 and Victorian
Discourse on Working-Class Drunkenness
Victorian Literature and Culture, March 2001
Matthews, Mike
Captain Swing in Kent and Sussex: Rural Rebellion in 1830
Hastings Press, ebook/Amazon, 2006
Mayer, Gustav
Friedrich Engels: Eine Biographie
Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin, 1920
Maynard, John
The Agricultural Labourer in Worcestershire: Responses to Economic Change and
Social Dislocation 1790 – 1841 
A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the University’s requirements for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy, Coventry University, May 2005
McConnel & Co. Ltd., Ancoats, Manchester
A Century of Fine Cotton Spinning, 1790-1906
George Falkner & Sons, Manchester, 1906
McDonagh, Martin
Nether Stowey 1832: a Snapshot of the Poor and the Poor Laws in one Somersetshire
parish, taken by Thomas Poole, Magistrate
McGuffie, T. H.
Recruiting the Ranks of the Regular British Army during the French Wars: Recruiting, Recruits, and Methods of Recruiting
Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, Vol. 34, No. 138 (June 1956), pp. 50-58
Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, Vol. 34, No. 139 (Sept. 1956), pp. 123-132
McKendrick, Neil
Josiah Wedgwood: an Eighteenth-Century Entrepreneur in Salesmanship and Marketing
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 12, No. 3 (1960), pp. 408-433
McKendrick, Neil
Josiah Wedgwood and Factory Discipline
Historical Journal, Vol. 4, No. 1 (1961), pp. 30-55
McKunnie, Tom
Regulation and the Health of Child Workers in the Mid-Victorian Silk Industry
Local Population Studies, Number 74, Spring 2005
Meslé, France; Vallin, Jacques
Reconstitution de Tables Annuales de Mortalité pour la France au XIXe Siècle
Population, Année 1989, 44-6, pp. 1121-1158
Mills, Stephen
The Origins, Development, Decline and Reuse of the Cloth Mills of the Stroud Valleys of
A thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, The University of Leicester,
November 1997
Mitchell, B. R.
Economic Development of the British Coal Industry 1800-1914
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1984
Mitchell, Brigitte
The Health of Recruits for the British Army during the Early Nineteenth Century
Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, Vol. 83, No. 335 (Autumn 2005), pp. 215-227
Mood, Jonathan William
Employment, Politics and Working-Class Women in North East England, c. 1790-1914
Thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of History,
University of Durham, 2006
Mokyr, Joel; Ó Gráda, Cormac
Height and Health in the United Kingdom, 1815-1860: Evidence from the East India Army
Explorations in Economic History, 1996, Vol. 33, Issue 2, pp. 141-168
Mokyr, Joel (ed.)
The British Industrial Revolution: An Economic Perspective
Westview Press, Perseus Books Group, Boulder, Colorado, 1999 (2nd edition)
Muldren, Craig
Food, Energy and the Creation of Industriousness: Work and Material Culture in Agrarian England, 1550-1780
Cambridge Studies in Economic History, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011
Murray, Robert (formerly H. M. Medical Inspector of Factories, Manchester)
Quarry Bank Mill, 1 The Story of the Mill
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1958, 15, pp. 293-298
Quarry Bank Mill, 2 The Medical Service
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1959, 16, pp. 61-67
Musson, Albert Edward; Robins, Eric
Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1969
National Archives, British Government
Home -> Discovery -> Description books
Series WO54, WO67, WO69
National Trust
Quarry Bank: Resource Pack
Navickas, Katrina
Protest and the Politics of Space and Place, 1789-1848
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 2017
Nejedly, Mary
Child Labour in an Industrial Town: a Study of Child Workers in Birmingham, 1750 to 1880
A Thesis submitted to the University of Birmingham for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
(unpublished), July 2018
Centre for West Midlands History, School of History and Cultures, University of Birmingham
Nevell, Michael (ed.)
From Farmer to Factory Owner: Models, Methodology and Industrialisation
Archaeological Approaches to the Industrial Revolution in North West England
Archaeology North West, Volume 6, (Issue 16, for 2001-3)
Nevell, Michael
Living in the Industrial City: Housing Quality, Land Ownership and the Archaeological 
Evidence from Industrial Manchester, 1740-1850
International Journal for Historical Archaeology, Volume 15, Issue 4 (September 2011),
pp. 594-606
Nevell, Michael
The Archaeology of Industrialisation and the Textile Industry: the Example of Manchester
and the south-western Pennine Uplands during the 18th Century (Part 1)
University of Salford, Manchester
Industrial Archaeology Review, XXX: 1, 2008
Ditto (Part 2)
Industrial Archaeology Review, XXX: 1, 2008
Nevell, Michael
Excavating Engels: the Archaeological Investigations of Workers’ Housing in Manchester
and Salford, 2001 to 2017
University of Salford, Manchester, 2017
Newman, Caron; Newman, Richard
Housing the workforce in 19th-century east Lancashire: past processes, enduring 
perceptions and contemporary meanings
Post-Medieval Archaeology 42/1 (2008), pp. 181-200
Newman, George, Sir
Infant Mortality: A Social Problem 
E. P. Dutton and Company, New York, 1907
Newman, Sophie Louise
The Growth of a Nation: Child Development in the Industrial Revolution in England,
c. AD 1750-1850
Doctoral Thesis, Durham University, 2016
Nicholas, Stephen; Steckel, Richard H.
Heights and Living Standards of English Workers during the Early Years of Industrialization,
The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 51, No. 4 (Dec. 1991), pp. 937-957
Nisbet, Stuart M.
The Making of Scotland’s first Industrial Region: The early Cotton Industry in Renfrewshire
Journal of Scottish Historical Studies, 29.1, 2009, pp. 1–28
Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2009
Ó Grada, Cormac; Mokyr, Joel
Height and Health in the United Kingdom: Evidence from the East India Company army
 Working Papers 199407, School of Economics, University College Dublin, 1994
Oddy, D. J.
Urban Famine in Nineteenth-Century Britain: The Effect of the Lancashire Cotton Famine on Working-Class Diet and Health
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Feb. 1983), pp. 68-86
Oxford Archaeology North / Manchester Metropolitan University
Birley Fields, Hulme, Manchester, Community Excavation, June 2012
Parr, Linda Jean
The History of Libraries in Halifax and Huddersfield from the Mid-Sixteenth Century to the
Coming of the Public Libraries
Thesis submitted for the Degree of Philosophy of the University of London, 2003
Paterson, Carla Susan
From Fever to Digestive Disease: Approaches to the Problem of Factory Ill-Health in Britain,
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor
of Philosophy, in the Faculty of Graduate Studies, The University of British Columbia,
October 1995
Pergam, Elizabeth A.
The Manchester Art Treasures Exhibition of 1857: Entrepreneurs, Connossieurs and the Public
Routledge, Abingdon, 2017 
Perriton, Linda
Depositor Trends in the Limehouse Savings Bank: London between 1830 and 1876
World Savings Banks Institute, May 2012
Petersen, Christian; Jenkins, Andrew
Bread and the British Economy, 1770-1870
Scolar Press, Abingdon, 1995
Pfister, Ulrich; Fertig, George
The Population History of Germany: Research Strategy and Preliminary Results
MPIDR Working Paper WP 2010-035, December 2010
Pfister, Ulrich; Riedel, Jana; Uebele, Martin
Real Wages and the Origins of Modern Economic Growth in Germany, 16thto 19th Centuries
EHES Working Papers in Economic History, No. 17, April 2012
Phillips, A. D. M.
The Underdraining of Farmland in England during the Nineteenth Century
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989
Pinchbeck, Ivy
Women Workers in the Industrial Revolution, 1750-1850
Frank Cass, Abingdon, Oxford, New impression 1997 (first edition 1930)
Pison, Gilles
France 2004: L’espérance de la Vie franchit le Seuil de 80 Ans
(France 2004: Life Expectancy crosses the Threshold of 80 Years)
INED, Population et Sociétés, Numéro 410, Mars 2005
Pollard, Sidney
Factory Discipline in the Industrial Revolution
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 16, No. 2 (1963), pp. 254-271
Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Economic History Society
Pollard, Sidney
The Factory Village in the Industrial Revolution
The English Historical Review, Volume LXXIX, Issue CCCXII, July 1964, pp. 513-531
Pooley, Colin; Turnbull, Jean
Migration and Mobility since the 18th Century
UCL Press, University College London, London, 1998
Postel-Vinay, Gilles; Sahn, David E.
Explaining Stunting in Nineteenth-century France
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 63, No. 2 (May 2010), pp. 315-334
Prothero, Rowland E.
English Farming, Past and Present
Longmans, Green & Co., London, 1912
Raven, Neil
Chelmsford during the Industrial Revolution, c. 1790-1840
Urban History, Vol. 30, Bo. 1 (May 2003), pp. 44-62
Razzell, P. E.; Wainright, R. W.
The Victorian Working Class: Selections from the “Morning Chronicle”
Routledge, London, 2014 (first published 1973)
Redford, Arthur 
Labour Migration in England, 1800-1850
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1926 (reprinted 1976)
Reid, Caroline Oldcorn
Middle Class Values and Working Class Culture in Nineteenth Century Sheffield
Thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Department of Economic and Social History, University of Sheffield, June 1976
Reynolds, Melanie
Infant Mortality and Working-Class Child Care, 1850-1899
Palgrave MacMillan, Basingstoke, Hampshire, 2016
Richardson, T. L.
The Agricultural Labourers’ Standard of Living in Lincolnshire, 1790-1840:
Social Protest and Public Order
The Agricultural History Review, 41 (1993), 1, pp. 1-19
Richardson, Thomas Lill
The Standard of Living Controversy 1790-1840, with Special Reference to Agricultural Labourers
in Seven English Counties
Thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the University of Hull, May 1977 
Riley, James C.
Height, Nutrition, and Mortality Risk reconsidered
The Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Winter, 1994), pp. 465-492
Rimmer, W. G. 
Marshall’s of Leeds, Flax-Spinners, 1788-1886
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1960
Rioux, Sébastien
Labouring Bodies: Living Standards and the Distribution of Food in Britain, 1850-1914
A Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Graduate Program in Political Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, December 2012
Robertson, Alexander James
The Growth of the Cotton Industry and Scottish Economic Development, 1780-1835
A Thesis submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of M. A. in the
Department of History
The University of British Columbia, July 1965
Rodgers, H. B.
The Lancashire Cotton Industry in 1840
Transactions and Papers (Institute of British Geographers), No. 28 (1960), pp. 135-153
Rosenbaum, S.
100 Years of Heights and Weights
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A (Statistics in Society), Vol. 151, No. 2 (1998), pp. 276-309
Rowlands, Marie B. 
Masters and Men: in the Small Metal Trades of the West Midlands, 1660-1760
Dissertation for the award of Ph. D., University of Aston, 1972

Rule, John
The Labouring Miner in Cornwall, c.1740-c.1870: a study in social history
Ph D thesis, University of Warwick, January 1971
Salavrakos, Ioannis-Dionysios
A Reassessment of the British and Allied Economic and Military Mobilization in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars (1792-1815)
Res Militaris, Vol. 7, No. 1, Winter-Spring 2017
Schmiechen, James
Nineteenth-Century British Townscape and the Return of the Market Place to Victorian History
In: Shirley, Michael H.; Larson, Todd, E. A. (eds.), Splendidly Victorian
Routledge Library Editions: The Victorian World
Ashgate Publishing, Abingdon, 2016
Scholliers, Peter
Wages, Manufacturers and Workers in the Nineteenth-Century Factory:The Voortman Cotton Mill in Ghent
Bloomsbury Academic, London, 1996
Schwartz, Leonard D.
London in the Age of Industrialisation: Entrepreneurs, labour force and living conditions,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992
Schwartz, Leonard D.
English Servants and their Employers during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 52, No. 2 (May 1999), pp. 236-256
Scola, Roger
Feeding the Victorian City: The Food Supply of Manchester, 1770-1870
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1992
Searby, P.
Weavers and Freemen in Coventry: Social and Political Traditionalism in an Early Victorian Town
Thesis submitted to the University of Warwick for the Degree of Ph. D., 1972
Secord, Anne
Science in the Pub: Artisan Botanists in Early Nineteenth-Century Lancashire
Cambridge Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine History of Science, xxxii
(September, 1994)
Sharpe, Pamela
Explaining the short Stature of the Poor: Chronic Childhood Disease and Growth in nineteenth-century England
The Economic History Review, Vol. 65, No. 4 (Nov. 2012), pp. 1475-1494
Shaw-Taylor, Leigh
Family Farms and Capitalist Farms in Mid Nineteenth-Century England
Agricultural History Review 53 II (2005), pp. 158–91 http://www.bahs.org.uk/AGHR/ARTICLES/53n2a3.pdf
Shaw-Taylor, Leigh; Wrigley, E. A.
The Occupational Structure of England c. 1750-1871: A Preliminary Report
Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure,
Department of Geography, University of Cambridge (2008, 2006)
Shepherd, Gordon
Income, Domestic Economy and the Distribution of Poverty amongst Labouring Families
in the Parish of Cardington, Bedfordshire, in the 1780s and 1850s
Family and Community History, Volume 13/2, November 2010
Sidney, P. B. 
The growth of textile factories in Derbyshire during the eighteenth century
A Dissertation submitted for the Degree of Master of Arts, Durham University, August 1965. 
Silberling, Norman J.
British Financial Experience, 1790-1830
The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Oct., 1919), pp. 282-297
Silberling, Norman J.
British Prices and Business Cycles, 1779-1850
The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 5, Supplement 2 (Oct., 1923), pp. 223-247
Slater, Gilbert
The English Peasantry and the Enclosure of Common Fields
Studies in Economics and Political Science, No. 14, London School of Economics
Archibald Constable, London, 1907
Smith, Antony David
The Strike for the People’s Charter 1842
A thesis submitted to the University of London for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy,
London School of Economics and Political Science, 2002
Smith, D. M.
The British Hosiery Industry at the Middle of the Nineteenth Century:
An Historical Study in Economic Geography
Transactions and Papers (Institute of British Geographers), No. 32 (Jun., 1963), pp. 125-142 
Smith, Lancelot David Wayland
Textile Factory Settlements in the Early Industrial Revolution; with particular reference to
housing owned by cotton spinners in the water power phase of industrial production
Thesis presented for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Aston, Birmingham,
September 1976
Soderlund, Richard L.
Resistance from the Margins: The Yorkshire Worsted Spinners, Policing, and the Transformation of Work in the Early Industrial Revolution
International Review of Social History, Vol. 51, No. 2 (August 2006), pp. 217-246
Solar, Peter M.; Klovland, Jan Tore
New Series for Agricultural Prices in London, 1770-1914
The Economic History Review, Vol. 64, No. 1 (February 2011), pp. 72-87
Solomon, Guy Samuel
The Living Standards of Tyneside Miners, 1836-1862
MSc by Research, University of York, Economics, July 2014
Steegmann, A. Theodore
18th Century Military Stature: Growth Cessation, Selective Recruiting, Secular Trends, Nutrition at Birth, Cold and Occupation
Human Biology, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Feb. 1985), pp. 77-95
Stephenson, Judy
The Organization of Work and Wages in the London Building Trades in the long Eighteenth Century
PhD Thesis, London School of Economics and Political Science, 2015,
Stobart, Jon; Raven, Neil
Towns, Regions and Industries: Urban and Industrial Change in the Midlands, c. 1700-1840
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 2005
Sugden, Keith; Cockerill, Anthony
The Wool and Cotton Textile Industries in England and Wales to 1850
The Online Historical Atlas of Occupational Structure and Population Geography in
England and Wales, 1600-2011
Cambridge Population Group
Sullivan, Janet Christine
Paying the Price for Industrialisation: The Experience of a Black Country Town, Oldbury, 
in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
A Thesis submitted to the University of Birmingham for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy,
January 2014
Szreter, Simon
Economic Growth, Disruption, Disease, and Death: On the Importance of Public Health for
Population and Health Review, Vol. 23, No. 4 (Dec. 1997), pp. 693-728
Szreter, Simon; Mooney, Graham
Urbanization, Mortality, and the Standard of Living Debate: New Estimates of the
Expectation of Life at Birth in Nineteenth-Century British Cities
The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 51, No. 1 (Feb., 1998), pp. 84-112
Szreter, Simon
Rapid Economic Growth and “the Four D’s” of Disruption, Deprivation, Disease, and Death: Public Health Lessons for nineteenth-century Britain for twenty-first-century China?Tropical Medicine and International Health, Volume 4, No. 2, pp. 146-152, February 1999 
Szreter, Simon
Health and Urban Growth in England in the “Dark Age” of Historical Demography c. 1750-1850
Paper delivered to a Conference in Honour of Richard Smith, Cambridge, 16-18 September 2011
Taylor, A. J.
Concentration and Specialization in the Lancashire Cotton Industry, 1825-1850
The Economic History Review, Vol. 1, No. 2/3 (1949), pp. 114-122
Taylor, I. C.
The Court and Cellar Dwelling: The Eighteenth Century Origen of the Liverpool Slum
Historical Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Vol. 122, 1970
Thomas, Brinley
Feeding England during the Industrial Revolution: A View from the Celtic Fringe
Agricultural History, Vol. 56, No. 1, Symposium on the History of Agricultural Trade and Marketing (Jan. 1982), pp. 328-342
Thomas, John
Pottery in England’s Industrial History
Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Proceedings of the Society, March 27, 1936, pp. 521-546
Thomas, Wilma R.
Women in the Rural Society of south-west Wales, c. 1780-1870
Thesis, Degree of Doctor of Philosophy of History, Swansea University, 2003
Thompson, Edward Palmer
The Making of the English Working Class
Pantheon Books, Random House, New York, 1964
Thompson, Edward Palmer
The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century
Past and Present, No. 50 (Feb. 1971), pp. 76-136
Timmins, Geoffrey
Made in Lancashire: A History of Regional Industrialisation
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1998
Timmins, Geoffrey
Housing Industrial Workers during the 19th Century: Back-to-Back Housing in Textile Lancashire
Industrial Archaeology Review, 35.2, 111-127, November 2013
Toms, Steve
Oldham Capitalism and the Rise of the Lancashire Textile Industry
University of York, The York Management School, Working Paper No. 30, ISSN 1743-4041, 2007
Tougan-Baranowsky, Michel
Les Crises Industrielles en Angleterre
(The Industrial Crises in England)
Bibliothèque Internationale d’Économie Politique
M. Giard & É. Briére, Paris, 1913
Trow-Smith, Robert
A History of British Livestock Husbandry, 1700-1900
Routledge, Abingdon, first published 1959, reprinted 2006
Turner, Michael
Counting Sheep: Waking Up to new Estimates of Livestock Numbers in England c. 1800
The Agricultural History Review, Vol. 46, No. 2 (1998), pp. 142-161
Tuttle, Carolyn
Hard at Work in Factories and Mines: The Economics of Child Labor During the British
Industrial Revolution
Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 1999
Tylecote, Mabel
The Mechanics’ Institutes of Lancashire and Yorkshire before 1851
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1957
Unwin, George; Hulme, Arthur; Taylor, George
Samuel Oldknow and the Arkwrights: The Industrial Revolution at Stockport and Marple
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1924
Urdank, Albion M.
Economic Decline in the English Industrial Revolution: The Gloucester Wool Trade, 1800-1840
The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 45, No. 2, The Tasks of Economic History (Jun., 1985),
pp. 427-433
Vamplew, Wray
A Grain of Truth: The Nineteenth-Century Corn Averages
Agricultural History Review, Vol. 28, No. 1 (1980), pp. 1-17
Verdon, Nicola
Changing Patterns of Female Employment in Rural England, c. 1790-1890
Submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Leicester, 1999
Victoria County History 
A History of the County of Leicester
Volume 4, the City of Leicester, ed. R. A. McKinley 
The City of Leicester: Social and Administrative History 1660-1835, pp. 153-200
The City of Leicester: Social and Administrative History since 1835, pp. 251-302
The City of Leicester: Hosiery Manufacture, pp. 303-314
The City of Leicester: Footwear Manufacture, pp. 314-326
London, 1958
Victoria County History
A History of the County of Shropshire
Volume 4, Agriculture
1750-1875, Motive Power, Tools, and Mechanization
1750-1875, Labourers and Cottagers
London 1989
Victoria County History 
A History of the County of Warwick
Volume 7, the City of Birmingham, ed. W. B. Stephens 
Economic and Social History: Industry and Trade, 1500-1880, pp. 81-139
Economic and Social History: Social History since 1815, pp. 223-245
London, 1964
Victoria County History
A History of the County of Wiltshire
Volume 4,Agriculture 1793-1870
London, 1959
Virgoe, John Malcolm
Rural South West Lancashire in the Eighteenth Century: the Land and the People
Thesis presented for the degree of Ph. D., University of Liverpool, 2003
Wadsworth, Alfred P; Mann, Julia de Lacy
The Cotton Trade and Industrial Lancashire, 1600-1780
Manchester University Press, Manchester, 1965
Walker, J. E. M.
Environment and Health in Manchester, 1750-1850
Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Technology of the University of Manchester,
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, October 1975
Walker, Martyn Austin
Solid and Practical Education within Reach of the Humblest Means: the growth and development of the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics’ Institutes 1838-1891
Doctoral Thesis, University of Huddersfield, April 2010
Wallace, Eileen
Children of the Labouring Poor: The Working Lives of Children in Nineteenth-century Hertfordshire
University of Hertfordshire Press, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, 2010
Waller, David
Iron Men: How One London Factory powered the Industrial Revolution and shaped the
Modern World
Anthem Press, London, 2016
Wallwork, K. L.
The Evolution of an Industrial Landscape: the Calder-Darwen Valley, Lancashire, from
c. 1740 to 1914
Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis, University of Leicester, 1966
Ward, J. T.
The Factory Movement, 1830-1855
MacMillan, London, 1962
Ward, Leonard
The Effect, as shown by Statistics, of British Statutory Regulations directed to the Improvement of the Hygienic Conditions of Industrial Occupations
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Vol. 68, No. 3 (Sep. 1903), pp. 435-525 
Ward, M. F.
Industrial Development and Location in Leeds north of the River Aire, 1775 to 1914
Thesis submitted for the degree of Ph. D., Department of Geography, University of Leeds,
September 1972
Warner, Sir Frank
The Silk Industry of the United Kingdom: Its Origen and Development
Drane’s, London, 1921
Watson, Michael Ian
Adult Education in North Lancashire in the Second Quarter of the Nineteenth Century
A Thesis presented for the Degree of Ph. D. in the University of London Institute of Education,
Watt, Kathleen Ann
Nineteenth Century Brickmaking Innovations in Britain: Building and Technological Change
Thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, The University of York, 
The Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies, September 1990
Weber, Jacob P.
Patterns in British Height, 1770-1845
Term Paper, 2018, Berkeley
Wedgwood, Josiah C. (great-great-grandson of Josiah I)
Staffordshire Pottery and its History
Sampson Low, Marston & Co., London, 1913
Wells, Roger A. E.
Dearth and Distress in Yorkshire, 1793-1802
Borthwick Papers No. 52, Borthwick Institute of Historical Research, University of York, 1977
Westwood, Christine
The Laithe House of Upland West Yorkshire: its Social and Economic Significance
A Doctoral Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of PhD. of the Loughborough University of Technology, May 1986 
Williams, Robert Bernard
Accounting for Management as an Expression of Eighteenth Century Rationalism: Two Case Studies
Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree:
Doctor of Philosophy, from the University of Wollongong, 1995

Wilson Fox, A.
Agricultural Wages in England and Wales during the Last Fifty Years
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Vol. 66, No. 2 (Jun., 1903), pp. 273-359
Wohl, Anthony S.
The Eternal Slum: Housing and Social Policy in Victorian London
Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 2001
Wood, George Henry
Real Wages and the Standard of Comfort since 1850
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Vol. 72, No. 1 (Mar., 1909), pp. 91-103
Wood, George Henry
The History of Wages in the Cotton Trade during the past Hundred Years
Sherratt and Hughes, London, 1910
Woods, Robert; Hinde, P.R. Andrew
Mortality in Victorian England: Models and Patterns
The Journal of Interdisciplinary History; Vol. 18, No. 1 (Summer, 1987), pp. 27-54,
MIT Press
Wrigley, Tony
English County Populations in the later Eighteenth Century
Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, Department of Geography,
University of Cambridge
Economic History Review, 60 (2007), pp. 35-69.
Yamamoto, Chiaki
Two Labour Markets in nineteenth-century English Agriculture: The Trentham Home Farm, Staffordshire
Rural History, 15, 1 (2004), pp. 89-116
Yamamoto, Chiaki 
Men’s Unemployment and Job Opportunities for Women: an Analysis of the 1834 Poor Law Report
Economic History Society Conference, 2010, Durham
Yasumoto, Minoru
Urbanization and Population in an English Town: Leeds during the Industrial Revolution
Keio Economic Studies Vol. 10, No. 2 (1973), pp. 61-94
Yasumoto, Minoru
Economic and Demographic Implications of Working-Class Housing in Early Victorian
Chapter 18 of: A. M. van der Woude (ed.); Urbanization in History: A Process of
Dynamic Interactions,
Clarendon Press, London, 1996
Yasumoto, Minoru
Rise of a Victorian Ironopolis: Middlesborough and Regional Industrialization
Boydell Press, Woodbridge, 2011
Zylberberg, David
Plants and Fossils: Household Fuel Consumption in Hampshire and the West Riding of Yorkshire,
A Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies in partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Graduate Programme in History, York University, Toronto, Ontario, April 2014

Works Consulted 18th and 19th Centuries

Adshead, Joseph
Distress in Manchester: Evidence (tabular and otherwise) of the State of the Labouring Classes in 1840-42
Henry Hooper, London, 1842
Aikin, Arthur
Journal of a Tour through North Wales and Shropshire
J. Johnson, London, 1797
Aikin, John
A Description of the Country from Thirty to Forty Miles round Manchester
John Steckdale, London, 1795
Alison, Sir Archibald
England in 1815 and 1845; and the Monetary Famine of 1847; or, a Sufficient and a
Contracted Currency
William Blackwood and Sons, London, 1847  
Allen, Zachariah
The Practical Tourist, Or, Sketches of the State of the Useful Arts, and of Society, Scenery, &c. &c, in Great-Britain, France and Holland 
A. S. Beckwith, Providence, 1832
(the journey took place in 1825)  
A Sketch of the Hours of Labour, Mealtimes, &c. &c. &c. in Manchester and its Neighbourhood:
March 1st, 1825
Printed by J. Harrison and Son, London, 1825
The Old and New Poor Law; who Gains and also Loses; Explained by Conversations of Facts of Daily Occurrence
John W. Parker, London, 1835
Army Medical Department
Reports on the Health of the Army, 1860-1894
Her Majesty’s Stationery Office
Ashley Cooper, Lord Anthony, later Earl of Shaftesbury
Speech of Lord Ashley in the House of Commons, on Tuesday 7th of June, 1842, on moving for Leave to bring in a Bill to make Regulations respecting the Age and Sex of Children
and Young Persons employed in the Mines and Collieries of the United Kingdom
John Murray. London, 1842 
Lord Ashley, M. P.
Moral and Religious Education of the Working Classes.
The Speech of Lord Ashley, M. P. in the House of Commons, on Tuesday, February 28th, 1843
John Ollivier, London, 1843                  
Ten Hours Factory Bill.
The Speech of Lord Ashley, M. P., in the House of Commons, on Friday, March 15th, 1844
John Ollivier, London, 1844
Ten Hours Factory Bill.
The Speech of Lord Ashley, M. P., in the House of Commons, on Friday May 10th, 1844
John Ollivier, London, 1844
Employment of Children in Calico Print Works. Corrected Report of the Speech of Lord Ashley,
M. P., in the House of Commons, on 18th February, 1845
John Ollivier, London, 1845 
Ashworth, Henry (Director of the Chamber of Commerce of Manchester)
Statistics of the present Depression of Trade at Bolton;
showing the Mode in which it affects the different Classes of the Population
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society of London, Vol. V, 1842, pp. 74-81
Aston, Joseph
A Picture of Manchester
Printed by W. P. Aston, Manchester, 1826 (Third Edition)
Atwater, W. O.; Woods, Chas D.
The Chemical Composition of American Food Materials
Government Printing Office, Washington, 1896
Austin, S., Harwood, J. Pyne, G. & C., 
Lancashire Illustrated
Fisher, Fisher, Jackson, London, 1832
Baines, Edward, Jr.
History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great Britain
H. Fisher, London, 1835
Baines, Edward, Jr.
On the Woollen Manufacture of England: With Special Reference to the Leeds Clothing District
Quarterly Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Mar., 1859), 
pp. 1-34
Baker, Robert
On the State and Condition of the Town of Leeds in the West Riding of the County of York
In: Local Reports on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of England,
1842, pp. 348-409
Baker, Robert
Sanitary Map of the Town of Leeds, 1842
Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain,
Edwin Chadwick, 1842
Baker, Robert (One of the Inspectors of Factories)
On the Industrial and Sanitary Economy of the Borough of Leeds, in 1858
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1858, pp. 427-443
Banfield, Thomas C.
Industry of the Rhine: Manufactures, embracing a view of the social condition of the manufacturing population of that district
C. Cox, London, 1848
Barfoot, James Richard
The Progress of Cotton: a Series of Twelve Engravings
Darton, 1840

Barfoot, Peter
The Universal British Directory of Trade, Commerce and Manufacture
Champante y Whitrow, London, 5 vols., 1791
Baron Howard, Richard (Physician to the Ardwick and Ancoats Dispensary)
An Inquiry into the Morbid Effects of Deficiency of Food; chiefly with reference to their
occurrence amongst the destitute poor
Simpkin, Marshall, & Co., London, 1839
(based on experiences in the depression in Manchester in 1838-1839)
Batchelor, Thomas (Farmer)
Expense and Profit of Arable Land,
in: Board of Agriculture, General View of the Agriculture of the County of Bedford,
1808, p. 70 et seq.
Beddoe, John
On the Stature and Bulk of Man in the British Isles
Reprinted from Vol. III of the Memoirs of the Anthropological Society of London
Asher & Co., London, 1870
Billam, Francis T.
A Walk through Leeds, or Stranger’s Guide to everything worth Notice, …
J. H. Leach, Leeds, 1806
Bischoff, James
A Comprehensive History of the Woollen and Worsted Manufactures: And the Natural and
Commercial History of Sheep, from the Earliest Records to the Present Period (2 vols.)
Smith, Elder and Co., London, 1842  
Board of Agriculture
General View of the Agriculture of … [a number of counties]
First series, published 1794
Second series, published 1799-1814
Board of Agriculture
Comparison of the Expenses of Arable Land in 1790 and 1804
Communications to the Board of Agriculture; on Subjects relative to the Husbandry and
Internal Improvement of the Country, 1806, Vol. V, Part II, pp. 17-121
Board of Agriculture (Arthur Young, Sir John Sinclair)
General Report on Enclosures
B. McMillan, London, 1808 
Board of Agriculture
Agricultural State of the Kingdom, in February, March, and April, 1816; being the Substance of the Replies to a Circular Letter sent by the Board of Agriculture, to every Part of the Kingdom
Sherwood, Nelly, and Grove, London, 1816
Board of Trade (ed. George R. Porter)
Tables of the Revenue, Population, Commerce, &c. of the United Kingdom, and its Dependencies, 1833
London, His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1834
Board of Trade
Report on Wholesale and Retail Prices in the United Kingdom in 1902, with Comparative Statistical Series for a Number of Years
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be printed, 6th August, 1903
Booth, Charles
Occupations of the People of the United Kingdom, 1801-1881
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 49, No. 2 (June 1886), pp. 314-444
Bowley, Arthur L.
Wages in the United Kingdom in the Nineteenth Century
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1900
Brereton, Rev. C. D. (Rector of Little Massingham, Norfolk)
A Practical Enquiry into the Number, Means of Employment, and Wages of Agricultural Labourers
J. Hatchard and Son, Norwich, 1824

Brereton, Rev. C. D. (Rector of Little Massingham, Norfolk)
Observations on the Administration of the Poor Laws in Agricultural Districts
J. Hatchard and Son, Norwich, 1826
British Association for the Advancement of Science
Anthropometric Committee, Report
Annual Meeting, 1879, pp. 176-209
Biodiversity Heritage Library
British Association for the Advancement of Science
Anthropometric Committee, Final Report
Brown, William
Early Days in a Dundee Mill
Extracts from the Diary of William Brown, an early Dundee spinner, edited by John Hume
(includes: Information regarding Flax Spinning at Leeds, 1821)
Dundee Abertay Historical Society, Publication Number 20 – 1980
Buret, Eugène
De la Misère des Classes Laborieuses en Angleterre et en France (2 Tomes)
(On the Poverty of the Working Classes in England and in France)
Chez Paulin, Paris, 1840
Butterworth, Edwin
An Historical Account of the Towns of Ashton-under-Lyne, Stalybridge, and Dukinfield
T. A. Phillips, Ashton, 1842
Butterworth, Edwin
Historical Sketches of Oldham
Published Oldham, 1856
Oldham Historical Research Group
Caird, James
English Agriculture in 1850-51
Longman, Green, Brown, and Longmans, London, 1852
Caird, James
On the Agricultural Statistics of the United Kingdom
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Jun., 1868), pp. 127-145
On the Agricultural Statistics of the United Kingdom (Second Paper)
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Mar., 1869), pp. 61-77
Cargill, William
Educational, Criminal, and Social Statistics of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 1, No.6 (Oct. 1838), pp. 355-361
Carpenter, W.
Machinery, as it affects the Industrial Classes
The Farmer’s Magazine, Vol. 14, Jul. – Dec. 1846, pp. 536-554
Cave, Edward (“Sylvanus Urban”); and successors
The Gentleman’s Magazine, and Monthly Intelligencer
Volumes 50 (1780) to 118 (1815) 
Edward Cave, London
Chadwick, David (City Treasurer of Salford) 
On the Rate of Wages in Manchester and Salford, and the Manufacturing Districts of
Lancashire, 1839-59
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Volume 23, March 1860
Chadwick, Edwin
Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population and on the Means of its Improvement
London, May 1842
Chadwick, Edwin
On the best Mode of representing accurately by Statistical Returns, the Duration of Life, and the Pressure and Progress of the Causes of Mortality amongst different Classes of the Community, and amongst the Populations of different Districts and Countries
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. VII, 1844, pp. 1-39
Cheshire, Edward (Assistant-Secretary)
The Results of the Census of Great Britain in 1851, with a Description of the Machinery and Processes Employed to Obtain the Returns; also an Appendix of Tables of Reference
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Mar. 1854), pp. 45-72
Children’s Employment Commission 
Second Report of the Commissioners, Trades and Manufactures
Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons and Command, Volume 13
William Clowes and Sons, Printed for Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1843
Children’s Employment Commission
Appendix to the Second Report of the Commissioners, Trades and Manufactures, Part I, Reports and Evidence from Sub-Commissioners
William Clowes and Sons, Printed for Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1842
Children’s Employment Commission 
Appendix to the Second Report of the Commissioners, Trades and Manufactures, Part II,
Reports and Evidence from Sub-Commissioners, 1842
William Clowes and Sons, Printed for Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1842
Cleland, John
Enumeration of the Inhabitants of the City of Glasgow and County of Lanark, for the
Government Census of M.DCCC.XXXI, with Population and Statistical Tables relative to England and Scotland
John Smith & Son, Glasgow, 1832
Cobbett, William
Rural Rides. In the Counties of Surrey, Kent, Sussex, Hampshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire,
Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Somersetshire, Oxfordshire, Berkshire, Essex, Suffolk,
Norfolk, and Hertfordshire, with: Economical and Political Observations relative to
matters applicable to, and illustrated by, the State of those Counties respectively 
Published by William Cobbett, London, 1830 
Cobbett, William
Cobbett’s Political Register
Volume LXX, from July 3, to December 25, 1830
Printed and published by the Author, London, 1830
Cobbett, William
Too Hot
Cobbett’s Political Register, Volume 53, January 15, 1825, p. 156
Cobbett, William
Cottage Economy: containing Information relative to the brewing of Beer, making of Bread, keeping of Cows, Pigs, Bees, Ewes, Goats, Poultry, and Rabbits, …
Published by the Author, London, 1822
Commissioners for Enquiring into the Condition of the Poorer Classes in Ireland, Third Report
Report on the State of the Irish Poor in Great Britain
Selection of Reports and Papers of the House of Commons: Vol. 48, Irish Poor, 1834
His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1836
Commissioners for Inquiring into the State of Large Towns and Populous Districts 
First and Second Reports, Appendix, Part I and Part II
William Clowes and Sons, 1845
Committee of the Manchester Statistical Society on the State of Education in the Borough
of Manchester in 1834
James Ridgway and Son, Manchester, 1835
Conference of Ministers of all Denominations
Report of the … on the Corn Laws, held in Manchester, August 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th, 1841
Documentary Evidence
Published under the Auspices of the Committee,
J. Gadsby, Manchester, 1841
Corry, John
The History of Macclesfield
J. Ferguson, London, 1817
Cowan, Robert
Vital Statistics of Glasgow, Illustrating the Sanatory Condition of the Population
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Oct., 1840), pp. 257-292
Creighton, Charles
A History of Epidemics in Britain
Volume II: From the Extinction of the Plague to the Present Time
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1894
Cuddon, Ambrose (publisher)
A Representation of the Manufacture of Earthenware
London, 1827
Danson, J. T.
Statistical Observations relative to the Growth of the Human Body (Males) in Height and Weight, from Eighteen to Thirty Years of Age, as illustrated by the Records of the Borough Goal of Liverpool. 
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 25, 1862, pp. 20-26
Danson, J. T.; Welton, T. A.
On the Population of Lancashire and Cheshire, and its Local Distribution during the Fifty
Years 1801-1851 (Part Fourth, and Last)
In: Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Volume XII,
Session 1859-60,
Adam Holden, Liverpool, 1860, pp. 35-74
Danton, J. T.
A Contribution towards an Investigation of the Changes which have taken place in the Condition of the People of the United Kingdom during the eight Years extending from
the Harvest of 1839 to the Harvest of 1847; and an Attempt to develop the Conexion
(if any,) between the Changes observed and the Variations occurring during the same Period in the Prices of the most necessary Items of Food.
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. XI No. 2, May 1848, pp. 101-140  
Davies, David (Rector of Barkham, Berks.)
The Case of Labourers in Husbandry: Stated and Considered, in Three Parts
R. Cruttwell, Bath, 1795
Demainbray, Rev. Stephen
The Poor Man’s Best Friend; or, Land to Cultivate for his Own Benefit: being the Results of
Twenty-Four Years’ Experience, in a Letter to the Marques of Salisbury
James Ridgway, London, 1831 
Dempsey, John
Dempsey’s People: A Folio of British Street Portraits, 1824-1844
Curated by John Hanson, National Portrait Gallery, Australia
Denton, John Bailey
The Agricultural Labourer
Stanford, London, 1868
Dodd, George
The Food of London: The Food for a Community of Two Millions and a Half
Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, London, 1856
Drummond, Henry (Preface)
On the Condition of the Agricultural Classes of Great Britain and Ireland, with extracts from the Parliamentary Reports and Evidence from 1833 to 1840, Volume II
John Murray, London, 1842
Eden, Sir Frederick Morton
The State of the Poor: Or, An History of the Labouring Classes in England from the
Conquest to the Present Period
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2011 (originally published 1797), 3 vols. 
Edmonds, Richard
A Statistical Account of the Parish of Madron, containing the Borough of Penzance, in Cornwall
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol II, 1839, p. 198 
Edmonds, T. R.
On the Mortality of the People of England
The Lancet, Volume 24, Issue 614, June 06, 1835, pp. 310-316
Ellis, William
The Country Housewife’s Family Companion
James Hodges, London, 1750
Encyclopaedia Britannica: or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature,
Enlarged and Improved
“Cotton Manufacture”
Supplement to the fourth, fifth and sixth Editions, Volume Third
Archibald Constable, Edinburgh, 1824
Engels, Friedrich
Die Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England
Otto Wigand, Leipzig, 1845
The Condition of the Working Class of England 1844
Reprint of the translation to English, 1885, authorized by Engels
George Allen & Unwin, London, 1885
English Charity (Poor Houses in Kent)
The Quarterly Review, Vol. CVI, 1835
Article VIII, p. 473
Factories Inquiry Commission
Second Report of the Central Board of His Majesty’s Commissioners appointed to collect
Information in the Manufacturing Districts, as to the Employment of Children in Factories, and as to Propriety and Means of Curtailing the Hours of their Labour:
with Minutes of Evidence and Reports by the Medical Commissioners
(Reports from Commissioners, 1833. Six Volumes – Contents of the Fifth Volume)
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 15 July 1833
Factories Inquiry Commission
Supplementary Report of the Central Board of H. Maj. Commissioners Appointed to Collect
Information in the Manufacturing Districts, as to the Employment of Children in Factories, and as to the Propriety and Means of Curtailing the Hours of Their Labour, 
Part 1 and Part 2
Ordered to be Printed 25 March 1834
Farmer’s Magazine, The: A Periodical Work, exclusively devoted to Agriculture and Rural Affairs
Archibald Constable and Co., Edinburgh
Vol. 1 (1800) to Vol. 23 (1823)
Farr, Dr. William
Causes of the High Mortality in Town Districts
Fifth Annual Report of the Registrar-General on Births, Deaths, Marriages, 1841;
pp. 406-437
Farr, William
The Influence of Scarcities and of the High Prices of Wheat on the Mortality of the
People of England
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Jun., 1846), pp. 158-174
Farr, William
Vital Statistics: a Memorial Volume of Selections from the Reports and Writings of William Farr
Sanitary Institute of Great Britain, London, 1885
Faucher, Léon
Manchester in 1844: Its Present Condition and Future Prospects
Simpkin, Marshall, London, 1844
Faucher, Léon
Études sur l’Angleterre (Investigations about England)
Guillaumin, Paris, 1845, 2 vols.
Felkin, William
A History of the Machine-Wrought Hosiery and Lace Manufactures
Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1867
Fielden, John
The curse of the factory system, or, A short account of the origin of factory cruelties, of the attempts to protect the children by law, of their present sufferings, our duty towards them,
the injustice of Mr. Thomson’s bill, the folly of the political economists, a warning against
sending the children of the South into the factories of the North 
Cobbett, London, 1836
Finch, John (the Younger, Merchant)
Statistics of Vauxhall Ward, Liverpool; showing the actual condition of more than
Five Thousand Families, Being the Result of an Inquiry recently instituted by the
Liverpool Anti-Monopoly Association
Joshua Walmesly, Liverpool, 1842                  
Friff, C. Bowles
Report on the Condition of the Working Classes in Bristol
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. II, 1839, pp. 368-375
Gavin, Hector, Dr.
Sanitary Wanderings, being Sketches and Illustrations of Bethnal Green
A Type of the Condition of the Metropolis and other Large Towns
John Churchill, London, 1848
Giffen, Robert
The Progress of the Working Classes in the last Half Century
Inaugural Address of the President of the Statistical Society, 1883-84
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 46, No. 4 (Dec., 1883), pp. 593-622
Further Notes on the Progress of the Working Classes in the last Half Century
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 49, No.1 (Mar., 1886), 
pp. 28-100
Gilbert, James
Gilbert’s Summary of the Occupations of the People of England, Wales and Scotland,
from the Abstract of the Population Commissioners
James Gilbert, London, 1844
Godolphin Osborne, Lord Sidney
A View of the Low Moral & Physical Condition of the Agricultural Labourer
T & W Boone, London, 1844 
Grey, Earl, unsigned letter to …
England in 1830: being a Letter to the (late) Earl Grey, laying before him the Condition
of the People, as described by themselves, in their Petitions to Parliament
Simpkin, Marshall, and Co., London, 1847 (reprint of original of 1830) 
Guy, Dr. William Augustus
On the Health of Nightmen, Scavengers, and Dustmen
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. XI, 1848, p. 72 
Of the Quantity of Bread-corn required yearly to maintain the Inhabitants of Great Britain
The Farmer’s Magazine, Edinburgh, 1801, p. 132
Special Commissions – Amnesty
House of Commons, 8 February 1831, Vol 2, cc 246-309
Hansard’s Parliamentary Debates
Distress of the Country
House of Commons, 1 July 1842, pp. 861-936
House of Commons, 6 July 1842, pp. 1013-1085
House of Commons, 8 July 1842, pp. 1171-1236
Hasbach, W.
A History of the English Agricultural Labourer
P. S. King & Son, Westminster, 1908 (original edition in German, 1894)
Hatton, John
A Lecture on the Sanitary Condition of Chorlton-upon-Medlock, Delivered at the Request
of the Manchester and Salford Sanitary Association
Beresford & Galt, Manchester, 1854
Hawkins, Francis Bisset
Elements of Medical Statistics
Gulstonian Lectures
Henry, Thomas
Observations on the Bills of Mortality for the Towns of Manchester and Salford
Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, Volume 3, 1790
Hindmarsh, L.
On the State of Agriculture and Condition of the Agricultural Labourers of the Northern 
Division of Northumberland
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 1, No. 7 (Nov., 1838), pp. 397-414
His Majesty’s Commissioners
Extracts from the Information received by … as to the Administration and Operation of the 
Poor Laws
See: Report from E. Chadwick, Esq., Assistant Commissioner, on London and Berkshire
His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1837
His Majesty’s Commissioners for Inquiring into the Administration and Practical Operation of the Poor Laws
Rural Queries, session 1834, vols. xxix-xxxiv
Holland, G. Calvert
The Vital Statistics of Sheffield
Robert Tyes, London, 1843
Holyoake, George Jacob
Self-Help by the People: The History of the Rochdale Pioneers
Swan Sonnenschein & Co., London, first published 1893
(first twelve chapters printed in the Daily News in 1857)
House of Commons
Abstract of the Answers and Returns made pursuant to an Act, passed in the Forty-first
Year of His Majesty King George III, intituled, “An Act for taking an Account of the Population of Great Britain, and the Increase or Diminution thereof”
Enumeration, Part I, England and Wales
Ordered to be printed, 21st December 1801
House of Commons
Abstract of the Answers and Returns made pursuant to an Act, passed in the Forty-first Year of His Majesty King George III, intituled, “An Act for taking an Account of the Population of Great Britain, and the Increase or Diminution thereof”
Preliminary Observations
Enumeration Abstract
Parish-Register Abstract, 1811
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be printed, 2 July 1811
House of Commons
Abstract of the Answers and Returns, made pursuant to an Act, passed in the Eleventh
Year of the Reign of His Majesty King George IV, intutiled, “An Act for taking Account of
the Population of Great Britain, and of the Increase or Diminution thereof”
Preliminary Observations, 1811 and 1821
Enumeration Abstract, 1821
Parish-Register Abstract, 1821
Ordered to be printed, by the House of Commons, 10th July 1822  
House of Commons
Abstract of the Answers and Returns, made pursuant to an Act, passed in the Eleventh Year of the Reign of His Majesty King George IV, intutiled, “An Act for taking Account of the Population of Great Britain, and of the Increase or Diminution thereof”
Volume 3, Parish Register Abstract, 1831
Ordered to be printed, by the House of Commons, 2 April 1833  
House of Commons
Abstract of the Answers and Returns made pursuant to an Act, passed in the 43rd Year of His Majesty King George III, intituled “An Act for Procuring Returns relative to the Expence and Maintenance of the Poor in England”[1802-03]
Ordered by the House of Commons to be Printed, 10th July 1804
House of Commons
An Abstract of the Evidence lately taken in the ….. against the Orders in Council, being a Summary of the Facts there proved, respecting the Present State of the Commerce and
the Manufactures of the Country
J. M. McCreery, London, 1812
House of Lords
An Account of the Cotton and Woollen Mills and Factories in the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland whereof Entry has been made at the Epiphany Sessions in Every Year from the Year 1803 to the Last Year ….
Appendix: Copies of Reports made by Visitors …. 
[Reports of the Visitors to the Mills, from 1803 to 1817, as appointed by the Act of 1802]
House of Lords
Reasons in Favour of Sir Robert Peel’s Bill for ameliorating the Condition of Children employed in Cotton Factories
W. Clowes, London, 1819 
Observations, &c., as to the Ages of Persons employed in the Cotton Mills, in Manchester,
with Extracts of Evidence against Sir Robert Peel’s Bill, taken before the Lord’s Committee
J. Gleave, Manchester, 1819 
Answers to Certain Objections made to Sir Robert Peel’s Bill, for ameliorating the
Condition of Children employed in Cotton Factories
Printed by R. and W. Dean, Manchester, 1819  
House of Lords
The Sessional Papers 1801–1833, Vol. 156 (1823)
Evidence on Silk Manufacturers Bill 
Printed by Order
House of Lords
Minutes of Evidence taken before the Select Committee of the House of Lords appointed
to consider of Poor Laws
Ordered to be printed, 7th December 1830
House of Lords
Sessional Papers, in the Session 1840, Vol. XXXVII 
Reports from Commissioners, Subject of this Volume: Hand-Loom Weavers
Printed by Order, 1840 
House of Lords
Sessional Papers, in the Session 1845, Vol. XXIII
Report of the Commissioner appointed to enquire into the Condition of the Frame-Work Knitters
Printed by Order, 1845
Hunter, Julian, Dr.
Report of Dr. Julian Hunter on the Housing of the Poorer Parts of the Population in Towns,
particularly in regards to the Existence of Dangerous Degrees of Overcrowding and the
Use of Dwellings unfit for Human Habitation
Eighth Annual Report of the Medical Officer of the Privy Council, Dr. John Simon, 1865
Inspectors of Factories
Reports, for the Half-Year ending 31stOctober 1848
Appendix, Evidence of the Opinions of Persons employed in Factories respecting the
Ten-hours’ Act, collected in September, October, and November, 1848, by Mr. Horner
and the five Sub-Inspectors in his District
Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1849
James, John
History of the Worsted Manufacture in England, from the earliest times
Longman, London, 1857
Johns, William (Superintendent-Registrar)
Report upon the Working of the Registration and Marriage Acts, during the Two Years 1837-38 and 1838-39, in the Registration District of Manchester
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Volume 3, No. 2, 1840, p. 191
Kay, James Phillips
The Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Classes employed in the Cotton
Manufacture of Manchester
James Ridgway, London, 1832
Kaye, T. 
The Stranger in Liverpool; or, an Historical and Descriptive View of the Town of Liverpool
and its Environs
T. Kaye, Liverpool, Seventh Edition, 1823
Kennedy, John
Observations on the Rise and Progress of the Cotton Trade, in Great Britain, particularly
in Manchester and the adjoining counties
An Inquiry into the Effects produced upon Society by the Poor Laws
Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, Volume III,
pp. 115-138 resp. pp. 430-445
George Wilson, London, 1819
Kennedy, John
Observations on the Influence of Machinery upon the Working Classes of the Community
Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester, Second Series, 
Volume V, pp. 25-35
Baldwin & Craddock, London, 1831
Knight, Charles
The Results of Machinery, namely, Cheap Production, and Increased Employment, ….
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge
London, 1831
Knight, Charles
Days at the Factories
The Penny Magazine of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Vol. XI
Charles Knight & Co., London, 1842
Soap and candle making, p. 41
Gas, p. 81
Church clocks and bells, p. 121
Pianofortes, p. 169
Leather, p. 209
Copper and lead manufactures, p. 249
Distilling, p. 297
Manufacture of floor-cloth, p. 337
Book-binding, p. 377
Vinegar and British wine, p. 425
Rope and sail-cloth, p. 465
Blacking, p. 509
Knight, Charles
Days at the Factories
The Penny Magazine of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Vol. XII
Charles Knight & Co., London, 1843
Needle-mills, p. 43
Porcelain-works, p. 73
Lace, p. 113
Silk, p. 161
Potteries, p. 201
Cotton, p. 241
Print-works, p. 289
Carpets, p. 329
Steam-boat, p. 377
Alum-works, p. 421
Woollen, p. 457
Flax, p. 501
Knight, Charles
Days at the Factories
The Penny Magazine of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Vol. XIII
Charles Knight & Co., London, 1844
Yorkshire worsted factories, p. 33
Butterley iron-works, p. 73
Fitzalan steel and file works, Sheffield, p. 121
Sheffield cutlery works, p. 161
Felling chemical works, p. 201
Glass factory, p. 249
Barrowfield dye-works, Glasgow, p. 289
Tyne factories – white and red lead and shot, p. 337
Sopwith’s cabinet manufactory, p. 342
Potteries, p. 344
Stephenson’s locomotive factory, p. 377
The Walker oil-mill, p. 380
Starch factory, p. 383
Electro-plate factory, p. 417
Birmingham factories, p. 465, p. 501 
Knight, Charles
Relative Progress of the Population and of Industrial Wealth
The British Almanac, Volume 22, 1849, Companion to the Almanac, p. 79
Charles Knight, London, 1849
Knight, Charles
Passages of a Working Life during Half a Century
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, reprinted 2014, first publication 1873
Knott, Squire
The Oldham Panorama (photographs), 1876
Gallery Oldham
Kohl, Johann Georg
England, Wales and Scotland
Chapman and Hall, London, 1844
Le Play, Frédéric
Les Ouvriers Européens: Études sur les Travaux, la Vie Domestique et la Condition Morale
des Populations Ouvrières de l’Europe, …
Ouvriers de l’Angleterre, pp. 188-211
(The European Workers: Studies on the Work, the Family Life and the Moral Condition of the Worker Populations of Europe, …)
English Workers, pp. 188-211
L’Imprimerie Impériale, Paris, 1855
Levi, Leone
Wages and Earnings of the Working Classes; with some facts illustrative of their
economic condition, drawn from authentic and official sources
John Murray, London, 1867
Lillie Craik, George; MacFarlane, Charles
The Pictorial History of England, Volume IV, 1688-1760
Charles Knight & Co., London, 1841
Chap. IV, History of the National Industry
Chap. VII, History of the Condition of the People
The Pictorial History of England, Volume V, 1760-1784
Charles Knight & Co., London, 1841
Chap. IV, History of the National Industry
Chap. VII, History of the Condition of the People
The Pictorial History of England, Volume VI, 1783-1792
Charles Knight & Co., London, 1842
Chap. IV, History of the National Industry
Chap. VII, History of the Condition of the People
The Pictorial History of England, Volume VII, 1792-1802
Charles Knight & Co., London, 1842
Chap. IV, History of the National Industry
Chap. VII, History of the Condition of the People
The Pictorial History of England, Volume VIII, 1802-1820
Charles Knight & Co., London, 1842
Chap. IV, History of the National Industry
Chap. VII, History of the Condition of the People
Logan, William (City Missionary)
An Exposure from Personal Observation of Female Prostitution in London, Leeds and Rochdale and especially in the City of Glasgow
G. Gallie and R. Fleckfield, Glasgow, 1843
“London Commissariat”
Quarterly Review, October 1854, Vol. 95, pp. 271-308  
Lords Committees, to whom was referred the Bill intituled “An Act to amend and extend
an Act made in the Forty-Second Year of his present Majesty, for the Preservation of the Health and Morals of Apprentices, and others, employed in Cotton and other Mills, and Cotton and other Factories»
Minutes of Evidence
House of Lords, The Sessional Papers, 1801-1833, Vol. 96 (1818)
Ordered to be Printed, 23d May 1818
Lords Committees, appointed to Enquire into the State and Condition of the Children employed in the Cotton Manufactories of the United Kingdom; and also to Enquire into
the Execution of the Laws now existing for their Protection, and to Report thereupon
Minutes of Evidence
House of Lords, The Sessional Papers, 1801-1833, Vol. 110 (1819)
Ordered to be Printed, 8th March 1819
Love, Benjamin 
Manchester as it is
Love and Barton, London, 1839
Love, Benjamin
Hand-Book of Manchester
Love and Barton, London, 1842
(The 1842 edition reports on the very bad situation of the factory workers, worse than
in the edition of 1839, and which was due to the harsh recession of 1839-1842)
Malthus, Thomas Robert
An Investigation of the Cause of the present High Price of Provisions
J. Johnson, London, 1800
Manchester Statistical Society
Analysis of the Evidence taken before the Factory Commissioners, as far as it relates to
the Population of Manchester, and the Vicinity, engaged in the Cotton Trade
Read before the Statistical Society of Manchester, March, 1834
Bancks and Company, Manchester, 1834
Manchester Statistical Society
Analysis of the Report of an Agent employed by the Manchester Statistical Society in 1834
to visit the Dwellings and ascertain the Condition of the Working Population in Police
Division No. 2, and in the first Subdivision of Police Division No. 1, in the Town of Manchester
Report of the Fourth Meeting of British Association for the Advancement of Science, held at Edinburgh in 1834, p. 690
John Murray, London, 1835
“Mark Lane”
The Price of a Quartern Loaf
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 26, No. 4, (Dec. 1863), Miscellanea, pp. 451-459
Marshall, John
Mortality of the Metropolis: A Statistical View of the Number of Persons Reported to Have Died
Truettel, Würtz, and Richter, London, 1832 
Mather, Ralph
An Impartial Representation of the Case of the Poor Cotton Spinners in Lancashire
G. Bigg, London, 1780
Mayhew, Henry
London Labour and the London Poor: A Cyclopædia of the Condition and Earnings of
Those That Will Work, Those That Cannot Work, and Those That Will Not Work 
Griffin, Bohn, and Company, London, 1851/1861
Mayhew, Henry
The Morning Chronicle: Labour and the Poor, 1849-50
Letters I to LXIII
Victorian London Web
McCulloch, J. R.
A Dictionary Practical, Theoretical, and Historical of Commerce and Commercial Navigation
Article “Prices”, pp. 1138-1140
An Account of the Contract Prices of the following Articles of Provisions &c. at the Royal Hospital, Greenwich, for the Years undermentioned
New Edition, Revised and Corrected, Longmans, Green, and Co., London 1880
Meidinger, Heinrich
Reisen durch Grossbritannien und Irland
(Travels through Great Britain and Ireland)
Heinrich Ludwig Brönner, Frankfurt am Main, 1829
Metropolitan Registrars
Metropolitan Registrars‘ Returns of the Sanatory Condition of their Districts
Fifth Annual Report of the Registar-General of Births, Deaths, and Marriages, 1841,
pp. 473-601; map of Registrars‘ Districts, after p. 472; Mortality in the Sub-Districts,
pp. 470-472
Molesworth, Rev. W. N. (incumbent at Rochdale)
On the Extent and Results of Co-operative Trading Associations at Rochdale
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. XXIV, 1861, p. 507
Neison, F. G. P.
On a Method recently proposed for conducting Inquiries into the Comparative Sanatory Condition of various Districts, with Illustrations, derived from numerous Places in Great Britain at the Period of the last Census
Statistical Society of London, Vol. VII, 1844, pp. 40-68
Nemnich, Philipp Andreas
Beschreibung einer im Sommer 1799 von Hamburg nach und durch England geschehenen Reise 
(Description of a Journey from Hamburg to, and through, England, in the Summer of 1799)
J. G. Cotta’sche Buchhandlung, Tübingen, 1800
Nemnich, Philipp Andreas
Neueste Reise durch England, Schottland und Ireland, hauptsächlich in Bezug auf Produkte,
Fabrike und Handlung
(A Recent Journey through England, Scotland and Ireland, especially referring to Products,
Factories, and Management)
J. G. Cotta’sche Buchhandlung, Tübingen, 1807
Nicholson, John
The Operative Mechanic and British Machinist, being a Practical Display of the Manufactories and Mechanical Arts of the United Kingdom
Knight and Lacey, London, 1825
Nield, Wm. (Mayor of Manchester)
Comparative Statement of the Income and Expenditure of certain Families of the Working Classes in Manchester and Dukinfield, in the Years 1836 and 1841
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Volume 4, 1841, p. 320
Norton, Charles Eliot
The Poverty of England
North American Review, Vol. 109, No. 224 (July 1869), pp. 122-154
Orange, James (Minister of the Gospel)
History and Antiquities of Nottingham, Books XIII and XIV
Hamilton, Adams, and Co., London, 1840
Ordnance Survey Maps, 1844-1847, six inches to the mile,
Lancashire series
National Library of Scotland
Overseers of the Parish of Lindfield, Sussex
Sums paid to the Paupers of Lindfield, for the Year ending Lady-Day, 1831
Printed at the Schools of Industry, Lindfield, 1831
Parish Clerks of Liverpool
General Bills of Mortality, 1802-1826
Percival, Thomas
Observations on the State of Population in Manchester and other adjacent Places
Essays Medical, Philosophical and Experimental, Vol. II, Part III, pp. 1-67
J. Johnson, London, 1789
Phillips, Richard
The Book of English Trades: And Library of the Useful Arts: with Seventy Engravings
G. Sidney, London, 1818
Pigot and Co.
National Commercial Directory for 1828-9
J. Pigot & Co., London, 1829
Pigot and Slater
Commercial Directory of Manchester, 1841
Pigot and Slater, 1841
Pitt, William (not the Prime Minister!) 
Communications to the Board of Agriculture, on Subjects Relative to the Husbandry and Internal Improvement of the Country, Vol. V, Part I,
An Essay on the Production and Consumption of Corn in Great Britain; its Population at
different Periods; the Means of increasing Human Subsistence; and of preventing future Scarcities 
1806, Vol. V, Part I, Art. 1, p. 272 et seq.
Playfair, William
A Letter on our Agricultural Distresses, their Causes and Remedies; accompanied with 
Tables and Copper-Plate Charts, shewing and comparing The Prices of Wheat, Bread,
and Labour, from 1565 to 1821
William Sams, London, 1822 (third edition)
Poor Law Commissioners
Local Reports on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of England
Presented to both Houses of Parliament, by Command of her Majesty, July 1842
Poor Law Commissioners
Local Reports on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Scotland
Presented to both Houses of Parliament, by Command of her Majesty, July 1842
Poor Law Commissioners
Reports of Special Assistant Poor Law Commissioners on the Employment of Women and 
Children in Agriculture
Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1843
Porter, George Richardson
Wages and Prices
Companion to the Almanac, Charles Knight, London, 1834
Porter, George Richardson
An Examination of some Facts obtained at the recent Enumeration of the Inhabitants of
Great Britain, ….
[Comparison of the Censuses of 1821 and 1841]
Quarterly Journal of the Statistical Society of London, February 1843, pp. 1-16
Porter, George Richardson
The Progress of the Nation: In Its Various Social and Economic Relations, from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century to the Present Time
Sections I and II, Population and Production
Charles Knight & Co., London, 1836              https://archive.org/stream/progressnation03portgoog#page/n4/mode/2up
Porter, George Richardson
The Progress of the Nation: In Its Various Social and Economic Relations, from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century to the Present Time
Sections III and IV, Interchange, and Revenue and Expenditure
Charles Knight & Co., London, 1838
Porter, George Richardson
The Progress of the Nation: In Its Various Social and Economic Relations, from the Beginning of the Nineteenth Century
John Murray, London, 1851
Porter, George Richardson
On the self-imposed Taxation of the Working Classes in the United Kingdom
Read before the Statistical Section of the British Association, August 1850
Porter, George Richardson
On the Accumulation of Capital by the Different Classes of Society
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Sept. 1851), pp. 193-199
Price, Richard
Observations on Reversionary Payments: …
Essay I, Observations on the Expectations of Lives; …
Essay IV, On the proper Method of constructing Tables for determining the Rate of
Human Mortality, …
T. Cadell, London, Fourth Edition, 1783
Purdy, Frederick (Principal of the Statistical Section, Poor Law Board, London)
On the Earnings of Agricultural Labourers in England and Wales, 1860
Journal of the Statistical Society, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Sep. 1861)
Purdy, Frederick (Principal of the Statistical Section, Poor Law Board, London)
On the Earnings of Agricultural Labourers in Scotland and Ireland, 1860
Journal of the Statistical Society, Vol. 25, No. 4 (Dec. 1862)
Radcliffe, William
Origin of the New System of Manufacture; commonly called “Power-Loom Weaving”, and 
the Purposes for which this System was invented and brought into Use, ….
James Lomax, Stockport, 1828
Rashleigh, William, M. P.
Stubborn Facts from the Factories, by a Manchester Operative, published and dedicated to the Working Classes
John Ollivier, London, 1844
Raynbird, Hugh
On Measure Work
Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, Vol. 7, 1846, pp. 120-142
Raynbird, William; Raynbird, Hugh
On the Agriculture of Suffolk
Longman and Co., London, 1849
Registrar-General of Great Britain
Annual Report of the Registrar General of Births, Deaths, and Marriages in England, 
Volume 3, Occupation Abstract
W. Clowes and Sons, for Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1841
Registrar-General of Great Britain
Annual Report of Births, Deaths, and Marriages; First (1837) to Twenty-Third (1860)
Her Majesty’s Stationery Office
Registrar-General of Great Britain
The Census of Great Britain in 1851; comprising an account of the numbers and distribution of the people, their ages, conjugal condition, occupations, and birthplace;
Occupations of the People,
Table XXXIII, Occupations of the People of Great Britain in 1851, arranged in Alphabetical Order, p. 125
Longman, Brown, Green and Longman’s, London, 1854
Registrar-General of Great Britain
Census of England and Wales for the Year 1861, Population Tables: Ages, Civil Condition,
Occupations and Birth-Places of the People
Her Majesty’s Stationery Office Census 1861 –
Summary Tables, Occupations of the People,
Table XVII, England and Wales, – Occupations of the People, arranged in alphabetical order,
pp. xxxi-xxxix
Rickman, John (Clerk of the House of Commons)
Abstract of the Answers and Returns, made pursuant to an Act, passed in the First Year of the Reign of His Majesty King George IV, intutiled “an Act for taking an Account of the 
Population of Great Britain, and the Increase and Decrease thereof”
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 2 July 1822
Roberton [sic], John
Observations on the Mortality and Physical Management of Children
Longman et al., London, 1827
Roberts, Charles
The Physical Requirements of Factory Children
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 39, No. 4 (Dec. 1876), pp. 681-733
Rowbottom, William (hand-loom weaver)
Chronology or Annals of Oldham, Diary 1787-1830
As serialised in the “Oldham Standard”, January 4th, 1887, to March 3rd, 1889,
and edited by Samuel Andrew
Published in Internet by the Oldham Historical Research Group
Rundell, María Eliza
A New System of Practical Domestic Economy: Founded on Modern Discoveries, and the Private Communications of Persons of Experience
A New Edition, revised and enlarged, with Estimates of Household Expenses, adapted to Families of Every Description
(see p. 387 et seq.)
Henry Colburn, London, 1827
Sadler, Michael Thomas
Factory Statistics: The Official Tables appended to the Report of the Select Committee on 
the Ten Hour Factory Bill
J. Hatchard and Son, London, 1836
Scott, Fred
The Condition and Occupations of the People of Manchester and Salford
Manchester Statistical Society, read May 8th 1882, pp. 93-116
Scriven, Samuel
Report to Her Majesties Commissioners on the Employment of Children and Young Persons
in the District of the Staffordshire Potteries; and on the actual State, Condition, and Treatment of such Children and Young Persons
House of Commons, Children’s Employment Commission, 1841
Secretary of the Board of Trade
Returns of Wages, Published between 1830 and 1886
Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1887
Secretary of the Treasury, United States of America
Cotton: Cultivation, Manufacture and Foreign Trade of ….
Doc. No. 146, March 4, 1836
Pamphlets on Wool, Cotton, etc., 1836
Select Committee to whom the Several Petitions complaining of the Depressed
State of the Agriculture of the United Kingdom were referred
Minutes of Evidence taken before the …..
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be printed, 18 June 1821 
Select Committee on Labourers’ Wages
Report of the ….
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be printed, 4 June 1824
Select Committee of the House of Commons appointed in the Session of 1837, to inquire into the Administration of the Relief of the Poor, under the Orders and Regulations issued
by the Commissioners appointed under the Provisions of the Poor Law Amendment Act 
The Parish and the Union: or, the Poor and the Poor Laws under the Old System and the New: being an Analysis of the Evidence contained in the Twenty-Two Reports
Charles Knight and Co., London, 1837
Select Committee on Agriculture: House of Commons
With the Minutes of Evidence Taken Before Them and an Appendix and Index: 
Ordered to be Printed 28 Aug. 1833
Select Committee on Artizans and Machinery
First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Reports
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 1824
Select Committee on Education in England and Wales
Report, together with Minutes of Evidence, Appendix, and Index
See: Evidence of Mr. Francis Place, p. 47 and pp. 67-90
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 3 August 1835
Select Committee on Hand-Loom Weavers’ Petitions: House of Commons
Report, with the Minutes of Evidence, and Index
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 4 August 1834
Select Committee on Hand-Loom Weavers’ Petitions: House of Commons
Report, with the Minutes of Evidence, and Index
Reports from Committees, Hand-Loom Weavers, Session 19 February – 10 September 1835,
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 1 July 1835
Select Committees on Hand-Loom Weavers’ Petitions (1834-1835)
Analysis of the Evidence taken before …
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 10 August 1835
Select Committee on Labourers’ Wages
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 4 June 1824
Select Committee on Manufactures, Commerce, and Shipping
Report, with the Minutes of Evidence, and Appendix and Index
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 19 August 1833
Select Committee on National Monuments and Works of Art
Report, with the Minutes of Evidence, and Appendix
Reports from Committees, Volume 6
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 16 June 1841
Select Committee on Public Libraries
Report, together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence, and Appendix
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 23 July 1849
Select Committee on the Silk Trade 
The Minutes of Evidence, and Appendix, and Index
Ordered, by the House of Commons to be Printed, 2 August 1832
Select Committee on that Part of the Poor Laws relating to the Employment or Relief of able-bodied Persons from the Poor Rate
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 3 July 1828 
Select Committee of the House of Lords appointed to consider of the State of the Poor Laws (1830 & 1831)
Report, with Minutes of Evidence, Appendices, and Index
In: Selection of Reports and Papers of the House of Commons, Poor (1), Volume 39
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 2 September 1831
Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Poor Law Amendment Act
First to Eleventh Reports, with Minutes of Evidence
The Sessional Papers of the House of Lords, Session 1837, Vol. XXXII, Poor Law Amendment, Part I
Twelfth to Twenty-Second Reports, with Minutes of Evidence, and Appendix
The Sessional Papers of the House of Lords, Session 1837, Vol. XXXIII, Poor Law Amendment, Part II
Select Committee on the State of the Children employed in the Manufactories of the
United Kingdom, 25 April – 18 June 1816
Report of the Minutes of Evidence
Reports from Committees, Session 1 February – 2 July 1816, Volume III
Ordered, by the House of Commons, to be Printed, 28 May & 19 June 1816
Shaw, Charles
When I was a Child: Growing Up in the Potteries in the 1840’s
Originally published as anonymous articles in the Staffordshire Sentinel, 1893
Guidemark Publishing Ltd, London, 2013
Shaw, Simeon
History of the Staffordshire Potteries; and the Rise and Progress of the Manufacture of Pottery and Porcelain
First published, Hanley, 1829; Reissued, Scott, Greenwood & Co., London, 1900
Shuttleworth, John
Vital Statistics of the Spinners and Piecers employed in the Fine Spinning Mills of Manchester
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 5, No. 3 (Oct. 1842), pp. 268-273
Slugg, J. T.
Reminiscences of Manchester Fifty Years Ago
J. E. Cornish, Manchester, 1881
Smith, Charles
Three Tracts on the Corn-trade and Corn-laws
Printed for the Author, London, 1758
Smith, Dr. Edward
On the Food of the Poorer Labouring Classes
In: Sixth Report of the Medical Officer of the Privy Council
House of Commons, 1864, Appendix 6, p. 219 et seq.
Smith, Dr. Edward
Dietaries for the Inmates of Workhouses: Report to the President of the Poor Law Board
Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1866
Society for Improving the Condition of the Labouring Classes, London
The Labourers’ Friend: A Selection from the Publications of the Labourers’ Friend Society,
Showing the Utility and National Advantage of Allotting Land for Cottage Husbandry
Published for the Society, London, 1835
Statistical Committee appointed by the Anti-Corn Law Conference
Charles Fox, London, 1842
Statistical Committee of the Town Council, Leeds
Report on the Condition of the Town of Leeds and of its Inhabitants, October 1839
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Jan. 1840, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 397-424
Statistical Society of London
Report to the Statistical Society of London from a Committee of its Fellows appointed to 
make an Investigation into the State of the Poorer Classes in St. George’s in the East
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 11, No. 3 (Aug. 1848), pp. 193-249
Steel. Samuel H.
A Report on the Sanitary Situation of the Town of Abergavenny, 1847, with Remedial Suggestions
Extract in: Mongenes, Monmouth Genealogy, Sanitation in Abergavenny in the 19th Century
Strang, John
The Sewing Machine in Glasgow, and its Effects on Production, Prices, and Wages
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. XXI, 1858, p. 464 
Strang, John (City Chamberlain of Glasgow)
Report on the Vital, Social and Economic Statistics of Glasgow for 1861
James McNab, Glasgow, 1862
Symonds, Jelinger C. (One of the Assistant Commissioners on the Hand-Loom Inquiry)
Arts and Artisans at Home and Abroad: with Sketches of the Progress of Foreign Manufacturers
William Tait, Edinburgh, 1839
Thackrah, C. Turner
The Effects of Arts, Trades, and Professions, and of Civic States, and Habits of Living on Health and Longevity 
Longman, London, Second Edition, Greatly Enlarged, 1832
Timmins, Samuel (ed.)
The Resources, Products and Industrial History of Birmingham and the Midland Hardware District
A series of reports collected by the Local Industries Committee of the British Association at Birmingham, in 1865
Robert Hardwicke, London, 1866
Timperley, Charles Henry
Annals of Manchester; biographical, historical, ecclesiastical, commercial, from the earliest period to the close of 1839
Bancks and Co., Manchester, 1839
Tooke, Thomas
Thoughts and Details on the High and Low Prices of the Last Thirty Years (Four Parts)
John Murray, London, 1823
Tooke, Thomas
A History of Prices and of the State of the Circulation from 1793 to 1837 (2 vols.)
Longman, London, 1838
Tooke, Thomas
A History of Prices and of the State of the Circulation in 1838 and 1839
Longman, London, 1840
Tooke, Thomas
A History of Prices and of the State of the Circulation from 1839 to 1847
Longman, London, 1848
Tooke, Thomas
A History of Prices and of the State of the Circulation during the Nine Years 1848-1856,(2 vols.)
Longman, London, 1857
Toynbee, Arnold
Lectures on the Industrial Revolution of the 18th Century in England
Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1894
Tremenheere, Henry
Agricultural and Educational Statistics of Several Parishes in the County of Middlesex
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 6, No. 2 (May, 1843), pp. 120-130
Tufnell, E. Carleton
Report on the Condition of the Agricultural Population in the West of England
Twelfth Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners, 1846, pp. 123-138
W. Clowes and Sons, London, 1846
Tulloch, Alexander Murray, Major-General Sir
On the Pay and Income of the British Soldier, as compared with the Rate of Agricultural Wages
Journal of the Statistical Society of London, Vol. 26, No. 2 (June 1863), pp. 168-185
Ure, Andrew
The Philosophy of Manufactures: or, An Exposition of the Scientific, Moral, and Commercial Economy of the Factory System of Great Britain
Charles Knight, London, 1835
Villermé, Louis René
Tableau de l’État Physique et Morale des Ouvriers employés dans les manufactures de
Coton, de Laine y de Soie
Jules Renouard et Cie., Paris, 1840 (2 Tomes)
(Report on the Physical and Moral Condition of the Workers in the Cotton, Wool, and Silk Manufactures) 
Von Raumer, Friedrich 
England in 1835: a series of letters written to friends in Germany during a residence in London and excursions into the provinces (3 vols.)
John Murray, London, 1836
Wade, J.
History of the Middle and Working Classes
Effingham Wilson, London, 1833
Wakley, Thomas, Dr.
The Poor-Law Amendment Act
The Lancet, Vol. 2, May 1, 1841
Walker, George
The Costume of Yorkshire, illustrated by a Series of Forty Engravings 
Longman, etc., London, 1814
The New York Public Library, Digital Collections
Watt, Alexander
The Vital Statistics of Glasgow for 1834 & 1844
David Robertson, Glasgow, 1846
Watts, John (Member of the Central Relief Committee)
The Facts of the Cotton Famine
Simpkin, Marshall, London, 1866
Webb, Sidney
Labour in the Longest Reign, 1837-1897
Issued under the Auspices of the Fabian Society
Grant Richards, London, 1897 
Webb, Sidney; Webb, Beatrice
The History of Trade Unionism
Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1894
Wedgwood, Josiah
Catalogue of Cameos, Intaglios, Medals, Bas-Reliefs, Busts and Small Statues; …
Etruria, 1787 (sixth edition)
Weerth, Georg
Skizzen aus dem sozialen und politischen Leben der Briten, 1843-1848
(Sketches of the social and political life of the British, 1843-1848) http://gutenberg.spiegel.de/buch/skizzen-aus-dem-sozialen-und-politischen-leben-der-briten-5551/8
Wheeler, James
Manchester, its Political, Social and Commercial History, Ancient and Modern
London, Whittaker and Co., 1836
Whittaker, Treacher; Arnot, Ave-Maria-Lane
A Plain Statement of the Case of the Labourer, for the consideration of the Yeomen and Gentlemen of the Southern Districts of England
London, 1831, Second Edition 
Wing, Charles (Surgeon to the Royal Metropolitan Hospital for Children)
Evils of the Factory System, demonstrated by Parliamentary Evidence
Saunders and Otley, London, 1837
Woollcombe, Gulielmus
Remarks on the Frequency and Fatality of Different Diseases
Longman et al., London, 1808
Young, Arthur
A Six Weeks Tour through the Southern Counties of England and Wales
Strahan, Nicoll, London, Second Edition, 1769
Young, Arthur
A Six Months Tour through the North of England
Strahan, Nicoll, London, Second Edition, 4 vols., 1771
Young, Arthur
The Farmer’s Tour through the East of England
Strahan, Nicoll, London, Second Edition, 4 vols., 1771
Young, Arthur
The Farmer’s Letter to the People of England: containing the Sentiments of a practical
Husbandman …..
W. Strahan, London, 1771 (third edition, corrected and enlarged, two volumes)
See: Letter V, State of the Labouring Poor, Vol. I, pp. 194-213
Young, Arthur  
An Inquiry into the Propriety of applying Wastes to the better Maintenance and Support of the Poor; With Instances of the great Effects which have attended their Acquisition of Property, in keeping them from the Parish even in the present Scarcity.
Being the Substance of some Notes taken by the Editor in a Tour in the Year 1800. 
J. Rackham, Bury, 1801
Young, Arthur
An Enquiry into the Progressive Value of Money in England
B. McMillan, London, 1812
Young, Arthur
Annals of Agriculture, and other Useful Arts, Vol. 1 to Vol. 45, 1784-1808
Printed for the Editor, London

Chapter 19. The Point of View of the Worker

Almost all the economic information and the descriptions of working life and daily life in this book, have been “external” to the worker, that is, they are collections of numerical data or optical observations, made by professional persons, farmers, landowners, and politicians. A small number come from agricultural labourers or industrial workers, interviewed by committees in Parliament, or by commissioners sent out by Parliament. In these latter cases, there are practically no cases of the workers giving their ideas of changes in the preceding 50 (for example) years.

As we do not experience their lives in flesh and blood, we cannot really “construct” how they might utilise information about the financial situation, and the good and bad living conditions, to give a general statement about how they felt in their terms.

The best we can do, is try to imagine what a man in 1850 might say about the changes since 1790, according to what he had heard. We will suppose that we are interviewing a man in 1850, who talked a lot with his grandfather in 1800, when the man was a child. The grandfather would have been a 10 year old boy in the decade 1790-1800. The questions would be: “based on what you grandfather told you, do you think that life is better now than in 1790?”, “would you like to change places with your grandfather, and go back to live in the years before 1800?”

The answers would have been different, according to the path that the family had taken in those 90 years.

The grandfather was an agricultural worker, and the grandson is also an agricultural worker:

“My grandfather and my grandmother did not have money problems. That is, so long as my grandmother had income from spinning. Afterwards, they had just enough to eat meat a few times in the week. Today, I earn a little more, and we eat meat also a few times a week, but we have enough over to buy tea, sugar, cheese, butter, and a lot of vegetables. My wife and I can both read, and the small children go to school. The work is less physically tiring, because I do not have to do any threshing, and other tasks are also done by machines. But this means that I cannot earn so much with the extra tasks. I have a better cottage than they did. We live near a small town, and from there once or twice a year we take an excursion by train.”

“I don’t think I would like to live in 1790. Perhaps there was a little more money, but life was harder.”

The grandfather was a weaver in the Lancashire countryside, and his family worked a plot of land; the grandson is a spinner in a cotton factory:

“My grandfather had a simple life, without any problems. He had to work about 10 hours each day, sitting down all the time, but he could take a pause when he wanted. They had enough to eat, especially because they had the oats from their plot. He told me that on a few occasions they had saved up money through the year, and they could buy a little more land.

I have a good life, the family (myself, my daughter, and a small son) earn in total 30 shillings a week in the mill. We eat meat or bacon nearly every day, we can buy things for the house, and nice clothing for the wife and girl for Saturdays. I save money in a benefit society. We don’t know the owner of the mill, and he doesn’t know us, but he doesn’t treat us badly. The work in the mill is not physically hard, like it was before the power looms. We work 56 hours a week, finishing on Saturdays at 2 o’clock. All the men can read, and all the younger women. There are problems with the filth in the streets, and the small number of privies. I have had two children who died in their first year, because my wife really does not have time to look after them and to give them milk. Working in the spinning hall of the mill affects your body; all the men are short, have sallow skin, and sharp features on the face.”

“I definitely would not like to live in 1790. My standard of living is the double of my grandfather’s, and the only real disadvantage is the lack of sewers and privies. The town council should do something about that.”          

The grandfather was an agricultural labourer, and the grandson is a worker in a chemicals factory:   

“My grandfather worked very hard, with long hours, and worked outside even when it rained. His wages were just enough so that the family could eat some meat. He had extra wages from task work and in the harvest month, but he used these to pay the year’s rent, and to buy clothing. His advantage was that he had a less stressful life, and had a social life, and often conversed with the farmer. He told me that on the occasions when he had very little money at the end of the week, the farmer would sell him some wheat at a low price. The farmer also paid for visits to the doctor.

I do not have a good life. Apparently I have good enough wages at 12 shillings a week, but I have to send the boy out to work for 3 shillings a week. Otherwise we could not pay for food – we have four children from 2 to 10 – and the rent. Sometimes the company does not pay us for one or two weeks, because they do not have any orders. The work in the factory is dangerous, and some of the men suffer with their lungs. The rooms where we live are small, and we have to share the privy with other families. We do not go out on Sundays, because we do not have any money.”

“Probably I would like to go back and work in 1790. The work was harder, but you could enjoy life.”

The grandfather was a casual building worker, and the grandson is a low-paid tailor.

“My grandfather said that he just earned enough to get to the end of the week, but he could always find work. He worked from 9 to 10 hours a week, but at his own speed. He and his family ate a lot of bread and a little meat; he drank beer every week. He did not have enough money to support his widowed mother, so he put her in the poor-house; she had a room with some other old women, and ate two quartern loaves and three plates of thick gravy each week.

I have not married, because I would not have the money to support a wife and family. I earn about 8 shillings a week, depending on the prices of the clothes, and how many pieces I can make up. I can only earn the 8 shillings if I work 14 hours a day, Sundays included. I live and work alone in my room. The problem is that there are a lot of us, bidding for the work, so the prices are very low. There is no least price, which might give us the chance to earn a living wage. For all the poor people, things have been worse since the Poor Law in 1834.”            

“I would rather have worked in the last century. There was a limit to how poor you could be.”               

Chapter 18. Conclusions

Chapter 1: Contemporary Observations

  • Comments from professional persons, farmers, and visitors are unanimous that there was a visible and continuous improvement in the incomes and living standards of the great majority of the population during this period.                                                                                                 
  • This improvement may well have been equivalent to an increase in the real wages of 5 per cent per decade.  

Chapter 2: General Study                                                                                                                 

  • The time frame for describing and evaluating the Industrial Revolution in England, should not be from 1770 to 1860; it should start from 1770 for the textile and metals industries, but from 1830 for the rest of the activities of the country. In 1851, only 20 % of the country by area had considerable (more than 40 %) employment in the secondary sector.                                                                                                                          
  • The cotton industry in Lancashire was obviously the principal driver of the new economy from 1770 to 1830; but this does not mean that the cotton region was representative of the country in its economic structure or in its living conditions.  

Chapter 3: The Growth of the Cotton, Worsted, Woollens, and Metals Industries

  • The cotton industry became extremely efficent and cost-optimised, not only due to the mechanical improvements and the use of the steam engine, but also due to the invention of the cotton gin in the United States, the use of liquid lime chloride for bleaching, gas lighting in the factories in the early morning and the evening, and printing on the cloth from designs engraved on metal cylinders.                                          
  • From 1792 to 1832 the price of cotton yarn went down to 20 %, and from 1815 to 1833 the price of calico cloth went down to 30 %.                                                           
  • The better level of cotton spinners earned 30 shillings a week, and the average class about 22 shillings. As usually three members of a family worked in a cotton mill, they could generally income from 30 to 40 shillings a week. These figures did not change much from 1815 to 1860. The cotton workers in general had a surplus of earnings against expenses.                                                                                                                                                                                                      
  • From about 1815 onwards, the cotton industry was characterised by low margins for the owners, and high volumes.                                                                                                 
  • In the worsted industry (long-hair wool, used for clothing for persons) in Yorkshire, the mechanization took place from 1810 to 1850, displacing a number of manual processes. The power loom started to be used around 1840.                                           
  • The wages levels for workers in the spinning and weaving processes went down, but a number of new types of jobs were introduced, with sufficient wages.                       
  • In the woollen cloth industry (short-hair wool, used for blankets and knitwear), the mechanisation came about 20 years later than in worsted, due to the different characteristics of the fibre. In 1860, the weaving was still done generally by individual weavers in their cottages.          
  • The wages in the woollen cloth industry continued at a reasonable level during the whole period.                                                                                                                                
  • The metal extraction, founding, and manufacturing industries in the West Midlands (particularly Birmingham and the later “Black Country”) increased their production volume impressively during the whole period 1770 to 1860. The region also produced pottery, carpets, watches, leather and saddles, and guns barrels.                                          
  • There were many technological improvements such as smelting iron with coke instead of charcoal, blast furnaces, high-precision boring of piston chambers, the Watt steam engine, the hydraulic press, railway tracks made from wrought iron (15 feet) instead of cast iron (3 feet).                                                                                      
  • The production mode in Birmingham and the other towns for metal products,was not a number of serial processes which were made faster and more efficient, as in the textile industries. The work to be done – and the price – was agreed between the men and the masters, for each different article.                                                                   
  • As the products were always different, and often new, there were few standard prices per article, or standard wages per week. Thus it is – and was – impossible to calculate a series of wage levels through the years.                                                                    
  • The incomes for the workers in all the West Midlands activities were generally known to be very high, starting in the eighteenth century. Many earned more than 20 shillings a week.                                                                                                                      
  • Life was more civilized in Birmingham than in Manchester. There was more civic spirit and more communication between men and business owners. The level of education was higher. There were better sanitary and housing conditions in Birmingham – absolutely no one lived in a cellar.                                                                     
  • A smaller metalworking region was that around Sheffield, where cutlery, workers’ knives, shears, and files were made. The men worked individually in their workshops. The wages were 25 to 60 shillings a week; on the other hand, the workers died young, many at 35 to 40 years old, due to the dangerous nature of the work. Sheffield was possibly the town with the richest workers in the world.     

Chapter 4: How was Life for the People before the Industrial Revolution?                                                                                                                                   

  • The men who were the first workers in factories in Lancashire and Yorkshire did not come from poor agricultural regions, or from other counties. Those in the Manchester area had always worked there; those in the Pennine areas of Lancashire, moved downhill from farmsteads or villages to towns.                                                       
  • The workers in Lancashire did not change to working in the mills because they were working in poor areas and were looking for reasonable incomes. They were spinners or artisans who had good incomes, and were attracted to work in the mills, because they were offered excellent incomes.                                                                             
  • The men, women and children in the countryside of Lancashire and the West Riding, had high living standards. The women and children in the farmsteads had good incomes from spinning wool or cotton, the men had weaving work 10 hours a day, and the families could work their plot of land to have enough cereal food.                      
  • The quality and variety of food in the towns of Lancashire were excellent.  A large proportion of the population ate white bread, and also meat on some days of the week.                                                                                                                                          
  • In the workhouses, the inmates had meat generally 3 times a week.                                               
  • The figures for child mortality in all England in the eighteenth century were very high – 170 / 1000 for infants (0 – 12 months) and 170 / 1000 for children (13 – 60 months).                                                                                                                        
  • The incomes in the cotton business in Lancashire were about 9 shillings a week. In Manchester the women spinners earned about 2 to 5 shillings a week, and their husbands as weavers earned from 5 to 10 shillings. 

Chapter 5: How was their New Life in the Factory?                                                         

  • The hours of work in the mills up to about 1805 were 10 daily, and the children were fairly well treated; around 1812 they were increased to 12.                                   
  • At the time of the Select Committee hearings in 1818 and 1819, the hours were from 13 to 14 per day, and the children were beaten in the last hours of the day, because it was impossible for them to keep working; a number of children died from the extreme amount of work, and the men spinners either died before they were 40 years old, or were not able to do any physical work in other occupations.                 
  • According to the reports collected for the Law of 1833, the hours were still long, but the work was easier.In 1843, the owners of the mills and other industrial companies decided without legal compulsion to make Saturday afternoon free of work.                                                           
  • Less than 25 % of the workers in Manchester were employed in the cotton industry, and not all worked in continuous activities on the machines.                                                       
  • The children who worked in the cotton mills (up to 1833) suffered from high temperature, noise and cotton flakes in the air, work without rest for 12 hours a day, bad treatment by the spinner, danger of accidents from the machinery, and deformities in the spine and legs.                                                                                    
  • Life in the mills and company villages in the rural areas was much better than in the towns, as the owners had to offer good conditions. There were company shops, good clothing for the children, enough food, and well-constructed cottages nearby. But the owners insisted on 10 hours work a day for all the employed persons.  
  • The men, women and children in the cotton spinning had considerably higher wage levels than those of the generation before. The people in the worsted and woollens industries did not have a noticeable real increase.   

Chapter 6: How was their new Life in the Town?

  • The housing in Manchester was of a number of different levels of quality, and thus of rent. The larger part of the housing in the town was constructed by the better-paid workers and small shopkeepers, in “building clubs”. The men paid a monthly sum into a common bank account, and the construction costs were covered by a loan from the bank, guaranteed by the value of the building.                                                                
  • The sanitation in the buildings and in the streets was very bad, but in not more than the half of the areas of Manchester Old Township (1832). The local better classes carried out a number of cleaning-up works, starting in 1830. They put into use the first street sweeping machine in the world in 1843.                                                                 
  • The extremely bad descriptions that we have of Manchester as to sanitation, housing, and living conditions of the workers, only refer to the Old Township (130,000 people, compared with 300,000 persons in the whole conurbation). The better paid workers lived in the suburbs. Even inside the area of the Old Township, there were gradations as to the bad conditions. Ancoats, Irish Town, Little Ireland, and Angel Meadow were the worst.                                                                                          
  • The child mortality in the industrial cities was very high by our standards (200 per 1000 up to 12 months, and 200 per 1000 from 13 to 60 months). These figures were not excessively high against the data of the second half of the eighteenth century. They were certainly lower than the country averages in the 19th century of Germany, Austria, and Italy, which were predominately agricultural economies. The average for England and Wales was 150 / 1000 and 110 /1000.          
  • The high infant mortality in the industrial areas was not due to low sanitary levels. It was due to the impossibility of the mothers to look after their very young children, to give them breast milk, and to give them nutritious food. The women in general left their work – ten hours a day standing up – two weeks before birth of the child, and went back to work four weeks after the birth. The infant death rate went down during the Cotton Famine of 1861-1865, as the mothers had more time to devote to their children.          
  • The death rate averaged over the whole of England and Wales improved from 1780 to 1830, and then remained the same up to 1860. The death rate in the industrial towns remained about the same from 1800 to 1860 (subtracting the effects of epidemics in some years), that is, a negative effect from the worsening living conditions is not to be found.
  • Life expectancy was clearly lower in the industrial towns than in the agricultural counties. But the figures have to be adjusted for the high death rate before 5 years, that is, the death rate for persons living after their fifth birthday was not so high. Also, the figures for adult death in the Lancashire towns, are too high, as they take as the divisor the number of persons living in i.e. 1841, which is low, because the number born in i.e. 1810, which is a function of the extreme growth rate of the population in each case.                                                                                                                                                                      
  • Added to the low expectation of life, a number of the workmen had work-related diseases or injuries, which took away their strength starting at 30 years old.

Chapter 7: The Poverty of the Domestic Hand-Loom Weavers                                                      

  • The income of a male hand-loom weaver went down from 26 shillings in 1814 to 12 shillings in 1817 to 6 shillings in 1826. The weavers and their families had a very bad nutritional situation after 1826.                                                                                      
  • The loss of income was not due to competition from the power-loom. The decreases in earnings took place in 1817 and in 1826; there were only 10,000 power-looms in 1820, and 50,000 in 1826.                                                                                                    
  • The reduction of income in 1817 was due to the export of “twist” (cotton yarn). There had been an export duty from 1810 which expired in 1817, and the export volume increased considerably with the ending of the French Wars. The export of twist meant that the cotton wholesaler on the Continent now had the yarn in his costs at a level of efficient English spinning machinery. Thus for the English wholesaler to compete, he had to bring down his costs of weaving to a level equal to those of the weaver on the Continent. This could only be done by reducing the piece prices paid to the English weaver. Unfortunately the English weaver had to buy his bread or oatmeal at English prices.                                                                                              
  • The power-loom did not take away volume from the hand-loom. The power-loom could not produce the “fancy” cloths that the hand-loom made. The power-loom was used for large series of simpler fabrics.                                                                                 
  • From 1820 to 1835, the hand-loom weavers were working flat out 12 hours a day and more to produce amount of cloth required by the market. The power-looms were adding to the total amount produced in the country, but the machine companies could not produce the looms quickly enough to cover the demand of cloth.

Chapter 8: Engels

  • Although nearly all the data given by Friedrich Engels in “The Condition of the Working Classes in England in 1844” are individually true, Engels filtered his information to give a uniformly bad impression of the living standards of the people.                                                                                                                                 
  • In letters to Marx, Engels told him that the workers in continuous employment ate very well, that they had high incomes, that had “cultural Sundays” in the Manchester Hall of Science, and that they were well informed about political theory.                                                                                                                                     
  • Engels does not mention in his book the fact that in 1843 – while he was working in Manchester – the business owners decided without legal requirement, to give Saturday afternoons free from work, without affecting wages.                                                                                                                                  
  • The well-known “sob story”, apparently perfectly documented, about a man in St. Helens, who has to do the housework, while his wife works 12 hours in the cotton mill, cannot be true as presented. St. Helens did not have any cotton mills, but it did have coal mining, plate glass making, salt mining, copper smelting, chemicals, and brewing, so that the man could have found work.                                                              
  • Engels’ intention, as he says to Marx, is to use all the information from England to attack the German industry owners and bourgeoisie. His tactic is called “Critique by street-fighting” (Marx’ terminology), and consists of not being a “nice guy”.
  • Two German academics visited England at the same time as Engels, and their judgement on his book was that “he wrote down the bad characteristics as sharp and shrill as possible, the better characteristics as smudgy and distorted as possible.” “The individual data are true, the totality is false.”

Chapter 9: Non-Income Parameters

  • The average consumption of bread in England during all this period was about two quartern loaves (9 lb. total) per adult per week, corresponding to one quarter (480 lb.) per year. This was generally taken to be a sufficient amount for daily activity.               
  • In 1834 and 1835, so much wheat was harvested that it exceeded the amount required for human consumption, and had to be given to horses and cattle.                    
  • In England and Wales the percentage of cereal consumption which was wheat, increased from 66 % in 1800 to 88 % in 1850, with a corresponding reduction in barley, oats and rye. This shows that the population had better incomes and could spend more on white bread.                                                                                                  
  • We have an investigation of real consumption of meat in Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds and Sheffield, in 1815-1820, giving 95 lbs. per person per year (average of men, wives, children, babies, and indigents). Another report, from the Manchester Statistical Society in 1836 gives 100 lbs. per person per year (equivalent to 1.5 McDonald’s Quarter Pounders per person per day!).                                                         
  • With respect to the short book by Dr. James Philip Kay, physician in Manchester in 1832, “The Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Classes employed in the Cotton Manufacture in Manchester” (1832), and which contains very negative descriptions of the living standards and habits of the workers, Dr. Kay informs us sotto voce in his preface, that it only refers to the poor workers in the Old Township.                          
  • The consumption of food in London during the whole period was very high.                   
  • The people in the six Northern counties had a food culture based on oats, which was more efficient in terms of weight of food per shilling. They were able to use it for a variety of foods.                                                                                                                  
  • Average heights of the men increased by about 2 inches from 1760 to 1830 (birth years).                                                                                                                               
  • From around 1834 something happened with the children, such that their average height when adult went down by 2 inches. Your author attributes this to the New Poor Law, and the prohibition of “outdoor relief”.

Chapter 10: Leisure Expenses, Savings and Education, Non-Financial Improvements

  • A large proportion of the population had a surplus from their income, to pay for expenses other than food, clothing and rent. In 1851, 6,000,000 people (one third of the population of the country) visited the Great Exhibition; a large number came by train from all over England and Wales.                                                                          
  • The working classes made payments out of their wages for benefit societies, savings banks, and building societies.                                                                                        
  • The better class of industrial workers made use of the Mechanics’ Institutes (from the 1820’s onwards), where they could take lessons or read books, in technical subjects, general culture, and French and German. There was a “Mechanic’s Magazine”, with advanced information about engineering and theoretical physics, with a circulation of 16,000.                                                                                                      
  • Of the male workers in factories in England in 1833, 86 % could read and 43 % could write.                                                                                                                            
  • There was much drinking in the industrial worker class (including the women), which had its costs for the family budget. The Poor Law Commissioners, the factory owners, and the doctors, were convinced that a large part of the poverty which the working classes suffered, was due to the excess of drinking, and other wasteful expenses.                                                                                                                          
  • The male industrial workers had the surplus time, energy, and money to visit prostitutes; the cost per adult male worker in the large cities was about 5 pounds per year.                                                                                                                                  
  • The working classes had a number of improvements in their lives, which were not paid out of their wages. These were street lighting by gas, subsidised third-class train transport, postage stamps, better fruit and vegetables due to railway transport, less physical effort in the textile factories, more mechanization in agriculture, less physical work in bringing the coal up from the mine face.                                                     
  • Up to the 1830’s the workers in the villages, and in some metals industries had to pay high prices in the village shop, respectively in the “company shop”. This was made illegal in theory from 1831.                                                                                           
  • The sale of food through the Co-Operative Societies made the prices lower for the workers.                                                                                                                            
  • Many manufactured goods of general use became much cheaper, due to the introduction of machinery and increased efficiency of the processes.

Chapter 11: Wages and Living Conditions of Agricultural Labourers, 1770-1815 

  • The figure for wages usually quoted was of “weekly winter wages”. However, these were only “standard” values, and did not represent the whole income of the agricultural labourer and his family. The total came from: higher wages in the hay season, higher wages in the harvest month, task wages for special work (especially hand threshing) which were 150 – 180 % of the basic wage, work by the wife, work by the children. The whole income for a labourer with constant employment was generally about 2.2 times the standard wage. Thus a man with 8 shillings standard wage per week earned (averaged over the year) 17 shillings per week, or 44 pounds per year.                                                                                                                                
  • The weekly winter wages, as an average over all England, were: 6.5 shillings in 1770, 8.9 shillings in 1795, increasing continuously to 13 shillings in 1812/1813.          
  • The cost of living index, starting from 100 in 1770, remained between 90 and 100 up to 1794, increased to maxima of 190 in 1801 and of 208 in 1812, but with lesser values in the intervening years of 1795-1815, and finished our period in 1815 at 150.                                                                                                                                         
  • The price of a bushel of wheat (a week’s consumption for a family), started at 5 shillings in 1770, remained between 4 shillings and 6 shillings up to 1794, increased to 14 shillings in 1800/1801 and to12-15 shillings in 1809-1813, but around 9 shillings in the other years, and finished at 8 shillings in 1815.                                       
  • The real wages, index 1770 = 100, remained between 90 and 110 during the whole period 1770-1815, with the exception of 80 in 1800/1801, and 120 in 1803 and in 1814/1815. The purchasing power of a weekly winter wage, in terms of bushels of wheat, was around 1.0 to 1.5 for the whole period 1795 to 1815, with the exception of 0.7 (insufficiency!) in 1800/1801 and 1812.                                                                     
  • From the beginning of the period of high prices for wheat (1794) to the highest point (1812/1813), the weekly wages increased from 7.7 shillings to 13 shillings (x 1.69), while the price of wheat increased from 6.4 shillings per bushel to 15.3 shillings per bushel (x 2.39). However this disequilibrium only took place in the years of great scarcity (1795/1796, 1800/1801, 1810/1813); in the other years in this period, the purchasing power of the agricultural wages was at a normal level.                       
  • The grave insufficiency in earnings as to the requirement for food consumption in the years of the French Wars and the bad harvests was compensated by the following strategies: a) increase of wages to 12, 15, or 18 shillings; b) the farmers sold wheat to the labourers at low prices, generally 6 shillings the bushel; c) the labourers were given extra work on the farm, and the unemployed were given work improving roads, etc.; d) many families changed from eating wheat to eating barley, which cost about 40 % of the wheat; e) the very poor ate a large proportion of potatoes; f) the population in the North were not so much affected, as they normally ate oats, which cost much less; g) the parishes paid increased amounts in poor rates; h) there were many collections of money by the better classes to give the poor food, firewood, and coals, at very low prices.                                                                                 
  • The financial situation of the labourers and their families was much influenced by the size of the families. Those families who had more than one small child, and had no child above 10 years old, were continually very close to the bread-line (literally!), and generally had to request money from the poor-rates several times in the year. This segment (30 % of the agricultural population) was not typical. Those families with no children, or on the other hand, with children of above 10 years, who could earn money as helpers in the fields or in domestic services, could eat enough and did not need help from the parish; but with the condition that the man was in continuous employment, and never ill. Young persons (male and female) of 16 to 25 years old, usually worked for their account as indoor farm-servants or as apprentices to artisans, where they paid nothing for their “bed and board”, and could save up to 30 pounds for when they married.                                                                      
  • The figures collected by David Davies in his “Case of the Labourers in Husbandry”, in order to show the pitiful conditions of the farm labourers, are not representative of the countryside nor of his parish. His parish was one of the smallest and poorest in England; there was no alternative in employment to field-work. The six families shown in his sample were not average; they all had a number of small children, and thus were the poorest in the village. He presented the data, obviously, with the best of intentions.                                                                                                                                            
  • The majority of agricultural families had enough income to eat sufficient bread or cereal, eat some meat (salted pork or bacon) and vegetables, clothe themselves, pay the rent for the cottage, and buy coal or firewood. The conditions of the cottages were in general not good. Those families who worked very hard, or who rented or owned a plot of land, could accumulate savings.                                                                      
  • The economic position of the labouring families was negatively affected in the period 1770 to 1815 by the advance of enclosures, which made it impossible for the families to pasture a cow or to collect firewood. Further, by the new processes in the woollens industry, which made it uneconomic for the wives to spin wool, and thus subtracted 3 to 4 shillings from the total income of the family. The threshing machines did not at this time cause unemployment, as there actually was a scarcity of workers (requisitioned for the armed forces), and actually improved the quality of life for the men.                                                                                                              
  • There was a considerable range of standard of living between the counties. Particularly the labourers in the North lived better, as they ate oats which cost the half of the wheat, and thus could eat other types of food. Other factors, additional to the amount of monetary earnings, were: having a plot of land for vegetables, cereals or a cow, fattening and eating a pig, level of cottage rents (or rents not charged), level of cost of fuel (coals or firewood), small manufacturing activities nearby, general productivity of the land in each county. The arable counties of South Central England (Buckingham, Bedford, Berkshire, Oxford, Wiltshire, Hampshire), were not typical of the country, but rather were poorer.                                                   
  • The Northern counties increased their average agricultural income by much more than the other regions.                                                                                                        
  • Threshing machines were introduced from 1795, and saved labour, but only in Scotland and the North. 

Chapter 12: Wages and Living Conditions of Agricultural Labourers, 1815-1860

  • Weekly winter wages were about 12 shillings from 1815 to 1820, and then maintained in the range from 9 shillings to 11 shillings from 1821 to 1860.             
  • There were other elements of income, which could increase the real weekly figure (average over the whole year), by about 50 %: wife’s work, children’s work, task-work, hay months, harvest month. With these amounts, the family could pay rent, clothing, and fuel.                                                                                                                
  • Wheat prices were in the range of 5 to 8 shillings per bushel, so that – taking only the weekly wage of the man – the family could buy 20 to 25 quartern loaves (4.5 lbs.) per week, which was sufficient.                                                                                             
  • The standard of living for the labourers was bad from 1815 to 1822, due to financial and natural problems, but was then sufficient for the years up to 1860.                               
  • In the period from 1815 to 1830, in the majority of the villages there was a 2-tier structure of employment for the labourers. About 70 % had a continuous job with a farmer; he did not have work for more men. The other 30 % (difficult persons or bad workers) had to do informal work for the parish or were paid weekly out of parish funds; they had full-time work only in the harvest month.                                                      
  • The report to the Poor Law Commissioners in 1834 (“Rural Queries”), showed that in the majority of counties in England, the families could eat well enough on 10 shillings a week, and a majority of families had enough money to buy meat.                     
  • Up to 1834, the men in villages received moneys from the parish funds, to make up the difference between their weekly income (or zero income) and a basic food-line calculated from the price of a loaf (“Speenhamland System”). This gave rise to number of abuses – by the farmers and by the men – and removed the interest of the “supernumary” men in looking for work. The national Government brought in the New Poor Law, which prohibited the parishes from paying “outdoor relief”, that is payments to people living in their houses. The Government would only help families if they went into the Workhouses, which were designed to be bad experiences. This meant those men who wanted to continue to work “outside” had to accept lower wages from a farmer, and that their wives and children had to work more than before.                                                                                                               
  • The few family budgets that we have for this period, and the reports of Commissioners from 1843 and in 1846, show that the labourers and their families had in general enough to eat, but everyone had to work hard. In the South-West the incomes were low, and in the North they were high.                                                       
  • The daily work of the farm labourers was made easier, by the use of new implements and simple machines made of metal, such as scythes, harrows, horse-drawn hay rakes and cheesepresses. From 1840 the steam engines were used to make a number of tasks more efficient, such as threshing cereals and elevators for hay; these made the work less physically demanding, but then the farmer would not pay “task-work” for easy activities.                                                                                         
  • The index of family expenses for agricultural workers, went from 150 in 1815 to 140 in 1860 (1770 = 100).                                                                                                               
  • The real wages (weekly winter wages) went from 123 in 1815 to 121 in 1860 (1770 = 100), with bad years in 1816-1818 and 1842-1846.                                                    
  • If we take into account the total income of the family (spinning, children’s work, task-work, harvest month), the nominal income was around 13 shillings in 1770-1790, 16 to 19 shillings in 1790-1840, 15 to 17 shillings in 1840-1860. The loss of wool spinning at the beginning of the period, and the lesser percentage of task-work at the end of the period, impacted negatively.   
  • The wages, expenses, and real wages for agricultural wages (only the man’s weekly wage; with task-work, etc.; adding spinning) changed as follows:
1770 = 100 
WAGES             169
EXPENSES       139
REAL WAGE    121 
1770 = 100 
WAGES                  158
EXPENSES            139
REAL WAGES       114 
1770 = 100 
WAGES                  130
EXPENSES            139
REAL WAGES         94 
  • According to Mr. Caird, an agricultural expert who visited the majority of the farming counties in 1850-51, the labourers’ wages had increased by 34 per cent against 1770, while bread was at the same level as 1770, meat had increased by 50 per cent, and cottage rent by 100 per cent.                                                                                                                         
  • Mr. Denton, a land engineer who had worked in many counties in the preceding 17 years, reported that in 1868 the average basic wage for labourers was 12 shillings 6 pence. He pointed out that the the agricultural worker had advantages in comparison with the industrial worker, such as a much cheaper rent, cultivating potatoes and vegetables without cost, lower price of bread and meat, better quality of air, and savings from gleaning.

Chapter 13: Captain Swing

  • The Swing Riots in 1830 were apparently caused by the agricultural labourers rebelling due to their poverty and hunger, which they thought were due to the threshing machines taking away their work in the winter months.                                              
  • But it was not true that the threshing machines reduced the demand for labour; the workers believed this against all observation; the better classes (even Cobbett!) could not understand why the workers had this belief.                                                        
  • The Swing Riots did not take place in all of Southern England. Almost all the violent acts took place in Kent and East Sussex, and in a region formed by contiguous parts of Wiltshire, Hampshire, and Berkshire. In Kent and E. Sussex the disturbances took place during 4 months, in the western counties, only 15 days in total.                                                                                                                                          
  • The disturbances were not due to generalized hunger and poverty. Data collected by three Parliamentary Commissions show that the income levels and food levels were sufficient. Descriptions of the convicted men, by the judge presiding at Winchester and by the doctor who accompanied them in their transportation to Tasmania, show that they were strong and healthy.                                                                                       
  • In Kent, in the first eight weeks of the disturbances, neither the men nor the authorities mention that the wages were insufficient and should be increased. In any case, Kent was the county in S. England with the highest standard of living.                       
  • In Kent, 82 threshing machines were destroyed, but the half of these were by criminal gangs, and about 10 by the farmers themselves. In the Western Counties, they were: Berkshire 78, Dorset 10, Hampshire 52, Wiltshire 97; about the half were destroyed by the farmers, so as not to have trouble with the gangs.                                       
  • The labourers particularly in Wiltshire did not suffer much hunger, as Wiltshire was the county with proportionally most allotments in England. These made it possible for the agricultural families (with a lot of work) to eat considerable quantities of potatoes and vegetables.                                                                                                             
  • In the Western Counties, in a number of cases, the labourers in each farm volunteered to guard the farm against the gangs, during the night.

Chapter 14: Developments and Wages in the Other Occupations

  • The occupations with the most workers according to the 1851 Census were:  agricultural labourer, domestic servant, cotton spinning/ weaving/ printing, general labourer, farmer, boot and shoe maker, milliner/ dressmaker, carpenter/ joiner, army and navy, tailor, washerwoman, woollen cloth manufacture, silk manufacture, blacksmith, worsted manufacture, mason/ paver, messenger, linen and flax manufacture, seaman (merchant service), grocer, gardener, iron manufacturer / moulder / founder, innkeeper, seamstress / shirtmaker, bricklayer, butcher / meat salesman, hose (stocking) manufacturer, schoolmaster / -mistress, lace manufacture.            
  • For a number of these, it is impossible to make a calculation of the movements in income, as a large part of the earnings were in the form of “bed and food, found”.                                                                                                                            
  • The persons who earned wages, that is weekly payments from employers for a given activity, in general could have a decent life. Those who had to sell the product of their work to middlemen and /or a highly competitive market, had a bad time.                                        
  • A number of new occupations sprung up during the second half of our period, with good incomes at a professional level, for example, mechanics and engineers, makers of steam engines, and of textile machinery, railway engine drivers, factory clerks and warehousemen.                                                                                                                 

Chapter 15: The Poor

  • The very poor in the Industrial Revolution are “invisible”, that is, they do not appear in official statistics. We do not know the percentage of these people in the total of the population. Neither do we know if the percentage went up or down in our period, although it is probable that it increased from 1834.                                                         
  • The extreme poverty in London only started in 1840-42, when a large number of starving and unemployed men and women arrived in the Metropolis. Their bad situation was caused by the catastrophic recession and unemployment of 1839-42.         
  • There was considerable poverty and hunger (but not starvation) among those agricultural labourers who did not have a steady job. Their situation had become worse with the New Poor Law of 1834, which prohibited the parishes from paying “outdoor relief”. In most families, the women and small children had to go to work in the fields.                                                                                                                              
  • The figures of weekly incomes presented in other chapters are to a certain extent theoretical. They do not include the effect of recessions with high unemployment, which reduced the average lifetime income of the workers, and caused situations of hunger. There were recessions in 1810-12, 1816-17, 1819, 1826-27, 1830-31, 1839-42, and 1847-48.                                                                                                                       
  • The worst recession was from 1839 to 1842. This was caused by a “bubble” of capital investment in the cotton industry in 1836-38, which then collapsed; from this point, the United States put up tariff barriers, three harvests failed consecutively, and there was contraction of the money supply by the Bank of England. Unemployment reached 30 % in some regions, and there was much reduction of working hours. Consumption of meat went down by a half. In Lancashire plus Cheshire there were about 4,000 deaths annually above the normal level.                                                                                        
  • Many children outside of the textile industries, for example in: metalworking, pottery, glass, lace, paper-making, were badly treated, as they were not subject to official reglamentation or inspection. They had very low incomes (if at all!), had to work long hours, the working conditions were bad, insanitary, and in some cases, dangerous. In some cases, the continuous heavy work attacked their bodies, such that young persons of 18 years old had the stature of 14-year old children, and had not reached sexual maturity. 

Chapter 16: Calculations of Movements in Nominal Wages, Cost of Living, and Real Wages

  • The average of the weekly wages in the non-agricultural occupations, increased from 10.1 shillings in 1770 to 18.0 shillings in 1860 (+ 78 %).                                         
  • The average of the weekly wages in agricultural plus non-agricultural occupations, increased from 8.5 shillings in 1770 to 16.3 shillings in 1860 (+ 92 %).                                  
  • The average of yearly wages in agricultural plus non-agricultural occupations, discounting 10 % for lost working time, increased from 19.8 pounds in 1770 to 38.1 pounds in 1860 (+ 92 %); Feinstein’s figures were 18.0 pounds, 38.2 pounds, + 113 %).                       
  • The wages per occupation for 1860 in this study are compared against very detailed figures from Leone Levi, Wages and Earnings of the Working Class, and are very close.                                                                                                                                     
  • The living costs for non-agricultural workers in 1860 are 150 (index 1770 = 100); the clothing costs are estimated at index = 40.                                                                  
  • Movements in cost of living indices are very close between agricultural and non-agricultural families, except that the agricultural family was positively affected by low cereal prices.                                                                                                                      
  • Real wages for 1860 in terms of index 1770 = 100 were: agricultural = 121, non-agricultural = 124, total = 133 (the figure for “total” in not between the two component figures, because there was a large percent migration of workers from agricultural to non-agricultural occupations). The Allen number for real wages in 1860 is 145; the difference comes from the data for 1770.   
1770 = 100 
WAGES                  197
EXPENSES            147
REAL WAGES       133
  • The standard weekly wages given for agricultural and non-agricultural workers require adjustments in order to show the real incomes of the families. For the agricultural families, the changes are to include task-work, harvest month, and wives’ and children’s incomes, plus wives’ spinning up to 1820; the resulting figures are given in the chapters and conclusions about agricultural labourers. For the non-agricultural families, we have to not take 3 persons of a family at i.e. 10 shillings each, but one family of 3 persons at 30 shillings total, because this corresponds to the money to be used by the family.                                                            
  • With the adjustment of the figures for cotton worker families, the nominal incomes for non-agricultural change in 1770 remain the same at 10 shillings, and change in 1860 from 18 shillings to 20 shillings; the index at 1860 changes from 178 to 195. The real wages at 1860 change from index 118 to index 130. 
1770 = 100 
WAGES                195
EXPENSES          150
REAL WAGES     130 

With these adjustments, the average income for agricultural plus non-agricultural families at 1770 changes from 8.5 shillings to 11.5 shillings, and at 1860 changes from 16 shillings to 19 shillings. The index of nominal wages at 1860 changes from 197 to 168. The index of real wages at 1860 changes from 133 to 113.                                  

1770 = 100 
WAGES                168
EXPENSES          148
REAL WAGES     113

The average wages for the working class of the country, expressed in pounds, and discounting 10 % for lost working days, are now 27 pounds in 1770 and 45 pounds in 1860 (Feinstein: 18 pounds and 38 pounds). The difference against Feinstein is due to the inclusion of the extra payments to the agricultural families.                                        

A calculation of average wages for non-industrial workers, in terms of the number of 4 lb. units of wheat which could be bought, gives the following graphic. 15 units of 4 lbs. gives one bushel, which was taken to be enough for a minimum decent level of expenses for a worker and his family. The families had just enough income in the years from 1770 to 1830 (with the exception of high grain prices from 1795 to 1815), and a considerable surplus from 1830 to 1860.    


Chapter 17: Solutions

  • There is an apparent contradiction between the small increase in real wages and the visible improvements in the daily life of the people.                                                      
  • The logical error is that it is not necessarily true, that the increase in useful income per “mouth” of a family is proportional to the increase in weekly income of the principal wage- / income-earner. This concept is invalidated in the case of a rapidly evolving economy and society, as was the Industrial Revolution from 1770 to 1860.                                 
  • The main arithmetical change was that the “Job Density” per family increased, i.e. the number of persons in the family earning a decent wage was higher. In 1860, not just the father, but also the wife and one young person could earn 10 to 15 shillings a week. As a rough calculation, in 1770 the family had 1.65 employed persons with a total of1.27 times the father’s wage, and in 1860 the family had 2.1 employed persons with a total of 2.1 times the average wage in the country. These amounts were the resources for the 4.5 “mouths” of the family. We know from the 1851 Census, and from the notes of Mr. Levi, that each family had two people working, with a total of 31 shillings a week. This means that the useful income for industrial families did not increase in proportion to the average incomes, but additionally with the effect of more persons earning. The increase in real incomes from 1770 to 1860 was probably about 80 %.                                                                                                                             
  • It is not the case that the working class had low living standards at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, and thus with the apparent zero increase in wages up to 1830, they continued to have a bad standard of living. A large number of the working class in 1770-1795 lived comfortably, and even if they had had zero increase in wages, they would still have lived at a decent level.                                          
  • The assumption as seen in the “family budgets”, and in the classical calculation of the index of real wages, is that all the families had expenses that exactly used up all their income. But the fact is that a large number had a surplus. With the wages increasing faster than the cost of living index, this surplus necessarily increased up to 1860.                                                                                                                                   
  • The calculation of an average of real wages over the agricultural, mining, industrial, and domestic production activities is incomplete. It leaves out the new occupations such as engineers and railway workers, and also does not take into account the service sector, which increased its participation in the economy.                                      
  • Some improvements in the daily life of the people were not a charge on the pay-packet, but were paid for by the better classes or by the government. Particular cases are gas lighting in the streets, and subsidized railway travel.                                              
  • The workers in many cases lived in districts with very bad sanitary conditions, and the assumption is often that this is an evidence that they were poor. The logic is not correct. Many workers with medium incomes lived in these districts, but the fact was that even if they had had more wages, they could not have found better areas. The workers and poorer professional persons who lived in these circumstances, did not give up on their lives, but had many cultural, intellectual and political interests.  


17.10. Contradictory «Optical» Assumptions

A large part of our vision of life in the period of the Industrial Revolution is that there were horrible sanitary and drainage conditions in the towns, and concurrently very high mortality rates for infants below 12 months and children of from 13 to 60 months old. We make the – apparently – “logical» jump to the idea, that the fact of these conditions demonstrates that the workers were poor, and had no intellectual or cultural interests.

This was not the case. A large number of the textile workers had good incomes. The point is that they could not do anything themselves about this state of affairs, and they could not have done anything, even if they had suddenly received 5 shillings a week more. The exception is Manchester, where from 1820, the better paid workers changed their domicile to the new “suburbs”.

It is also not the case that the bad sanitary conditions were exclusive to the industrial towns in the North (they were somewhat worse in Manchester and Leeds, as parts of these were constructed on low-lying ground, immediately next to a river). The majority of medium and large towns had these problems. They were not able to solve them. 

We can take the example of Abergavenny, a town of 5,000 inhabitants and 1,000 houses in Monmouthshire. The working population is mostly of building artisans of a good level (3 to 4 shillings a day), shoemakers, and agricultural labourers (10 to 14 shillings a week). The professional persons are attorneys, druggists, land agents, insurance agents. There are a number of shops (grocery, butchers, cabinet makers, booksellers, etc.) which also serve the nearby iron district. 

We have a report written by a doctor in 1844. He notes that the yearly mortality in Abergavenny is 1 in 42 (Leeds 1 in 37, average of Lancashire 1 in 37), 38 % of the population die before their fifth birthday (Manchester 51 %, Leeds 49 %). The average age at death was 43 for gentlemen and professional persons and their families, 28 for tradesmen and their families, 26 for mechanics, labourers, and their families (obviously including the deaths of children).

One of the main streets has a gutter running down the middle, which is always full of “liquid refuse”. Many houses do not have a privy. In one old part of the town, the houses are all crowded together, there is only one privy, but the door and the roof do not exist, and “the soil appearing above the level of the seat, so as to render use impossible”. Close by the privy is a manure heap, and beyond it a slaughter-house with pools of mingled water, blood and urine. In Pant Lane, here are some blocks of lodging-houses, which before had only one privy for all, but two more have been built, even so, that is one privy for 50 people; the cesspool is a hole in the ground. All the wards of the town have this sort of description, except around the High Street, which appears to be acceptable.

The doctor then gives statistics of annual deaths per ward, and infectious illnesses per ward. “The conclusion drawn from this is that although the town wards where the rate of mortality is highest are inhabited chiefly by the poor, the privations caused by poverty are not alone sufficient to account for this and that the poor sanitation and other defective arrangements are the main causes for so many deaths.”

Thus we see that the professional classes and better-paid artisans get on with their lives, although they inhabit districts with horrible sanitation.

(Samuel H. Steel, A Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Town of Abergavenny, 1847) 

The following investigation is from John Finch the Younger, a large-scale iron merchant, and comes from a book publishes by the Liverpool Anti-Monopoly Association, about the “Statistics of Vauxhall Ward, Liverpool; showing the actual condition of more than Five Thousand Families”, and compares their situation in 1842 with that of 1835.

Vauxhall Ward had a “large number of superior mechanics”; 15 % of the inhabitants were middle class, 45 % labourers, and 25 % mechanics and artisans. The population was 25 % born in Liverpool, and 45 % immigrated from Ireland (“mostly in indigent circumstances”). The commercial activities were “iron foundries, soap, alkali, chemical, and other manufacturies”. Of 1,600 mechanics and artisans, 150 are engineers and smiths, 160 are joiners, 250 are shoe and boot makers, 140 are tailors, 190 are sailors and ship pilots.

We show a page for a sample of 50 families in 1835 and in 1842.

From the data columns for 1835, we can calculate that the labourers have earnings of from 15 to 20 shillings, with an average of 17 shillings 6 pence. The mechanics have earnings of from 15 to 20 shillings in general (but with cases of 40, 34, 30, 30, 25), with an average of 17 shillings.

We can also see that the average family size was 4.1 persons, the average weekly income was 17 shillings 6 pence, the meat expense was 2 shillings 6 pence, the bread expenses was 3 shillings, oatmeal was 4 pence, potatoes was 1 shilling, and the residual amount for clothing, rent, fuel, and non-basic food was 10 shillings 6 pence. Nearly all the families ate meat. The amount of food consumed was 6 pounds per family, the bread was 5 quartern loaves, oatmeal was 3 pounds, potatoes was 30 pounds.

But, surprisingly, this was the worst ward in Liverpool, as to housing conditions and health. The density of housing was among the worst, the percentage of families living in courts was 40 % and in cellars was 12 %, only 30 % of streets had sewerage, the deaths were 1 in 23 of the population, and the proportion of fever cases was 4 times the average of Liverpool (see First Report on the State of Great Towns, 1844, Tables 11, 12, 13, 15, 15, pp. 148-153).

But we have seen that the people have good jobs and eat well.

Merthyr Tydfil

This was a town with coal mining and ironworks in the South of Wales, built next to deposits of coal, ironstone, and limestone. It had 10,000 inhabitants in 1800 and 40,000 in 1850. In the second quarter of the nineteenth century it was the largest ironworks complex in the world. 

It had practically no sanitation; there was not one public sewer or drain in the town. There was not enough water supplied to the town – obviously the miners and the furnace workers required the water to wash themselves daily – but the water was needed for the industrial processes. In 1846, in comparison with 1601 births, there were 412 deaths of children under 5 years (260 / 1000); the region had the highest child mortality in England and Wales, apart from Lancashire and the West Riding. In 1849 there was an outbreak of cholera which killed 1,500 people, despite considerable efforts by the owners and the medical officers.

But the town had a high cultural level. 

“I must again mention the booksellers because I consider them in proportion more numerous than the other trades …. a circumstance significant of the tendency to home and fireside amusements, which deserve notice and encouragement in a place where, by far, the bulk of the population is made up of the working classes.”

(Ginswick, 1983; Merthyr Tydfil and Dowlais, Letter VI, 1849, p. 67)

“I next called upon Mr. Wilkins the bookseller, who supplies the market-houses here, at Dowlais, and in the neighbouring works. He told me that if the cheap publications were in Welsh the sale would be enormous. While conversing with Mr. Wilkins, I was forcibly struck with the circumstance that the sellers of cheap publications can lead as well as follow the taste of the labouring classes. A heavy responsibility is in their hands. Mr. Wilkins disposes of:

                                               Weekly                                 Weekly                        

The Family Herald                 360          The Northern Star        12          

The London Journal               360         The News of the World 189    

Eliza Cook’s Miscellany           18            Dipple’s Miscellany      12          

The People and Howitt’s Journal 18    The Physician    24                       

The Home Circle                      18            Lloyd’s Miscellany       24             

Reynold’s Miscellany               60           The Brigand         6                       

Reynold’s Political Instructor  36         The Hebrew Maiden      12           

The Domestic Journal              12  

These particulars give a tolerably clear insight into the literary predilections of the inhabitants of this populous neighbourhood – which it will be seen, run equally in the direction of their worldly and spiritual necessities, the learning of the sceinces on which they depend for bread, ….”

(Ibid. p. 68)

In another bookseller, a large number of religious tracts were to be bought (both Church of England and Welsh Chapel).

They had a brass band.

“Wisely endeavouring to improve the character of his workmen by means of a refined amusement, Mr. Robert Crawshay has established among them a brass band, which practices once a week throughout the year. It is entirely composed of workmen. They have the good fortune to be led by a man (one of the roll-turners) who must have had somewhere a superior musical education. I had the pleasure of hearing them perform the Overture to Zampa, the Caliph of Baghdad, and Fra Diavolo, Vivi Tu, some concerted music from Roberto, Don Giovani, and Lucia, with a quantity of waltzes, polkas, and dance music. The bandmaster had them under excellent control; he everywhere took the time well, and the instruments preserved it, each taking up his lead with spirit and accuracy; in short I have seldom heard a regimental band more perfect than this handful of workmen, located (far from any place where they might command the benefit of hearing other bands) in the mountains of Wales. When I was informed of the existence of this band, I knew how to account for a circumstance that puzzled me – hearing the boys of Cyfartha works whistle the best airs from the most popular operas. The great body of men at these works are extremely proud of their musical performances, and like to boast of them. I have been told it cost Mr. Crawshay great pains and expenses to bring this band to its present excellent condition. If so, he now has his reward. Besides this, he has shown what the intellectual capacity of the workman is equal to, and, above all, he has provided a rational and refined amusement for classes whose leisure time would otherwise probably have been lass creditably spent than in learning or listening to music. I greatly wish his example were followed at other works. Give a man an instrument to learn or play, and his spare time is employed in a manner equally entertaining and improving whilst his family benefits by an occupation which, in a greater degree, keeps him out of temptation.”

(Ibid., p. 60)

“I visited the new schools and examined the children. The following is the substance of the notes I made. The exterior of the building is neat, and of the “ancient almshouse” style, with slate roof and high gables. It struck me, however, as being low – an objection the importance of which Mr. Wyatt, who is the architect, will, I hope, consider when he next designs an edifice of this kind. I first went to the boys’ school. On examining the books I found that the average attendance was about 120 daily. The boys were mostly well-clothed and clean; only one of them was barefoot. The master, who is from the training school at Westminster, observed that they were children who “but for the school would have been running the streets”. The course of instruction at present comprises reading, writing and arithmetic, geography, and the outlines of history. When the highest class boys are sufficiently advanced they will be taught grammar. I tried the second class, consisting of boys from seven to nine years old, in the Gospel of St. Luke, and they acquitted themselves very creditably, reading without hesitation and correctly. One boy in the head class was working a sum in practice, another in reduction, a third in subtraction and so on. As a body, the master the children show great acuteness and capacity. “The only difficulty I have,” said he, “is to get them to attend regularly; when they stay away for a few days they fall back. Mondays and Fridays are the worst days for attendance.” He could give me no reason why on these days the attendance was small. On turning suddenly from the master, I asked the boy nearest to me (who might be about nine years old); “What kindness did Mary Magadalene do for Christ?” He replied without a moment’s thought, “She washed his feet, and wiped them with the hair of her head”.

(Ibid., p. 77)

“I took the opportunity of visiting the Adult Schools. I could scarcely credit my senses when the governess told me that the girls I was were those whom I formerly described as stacking coal for coking, loading trams, and cleaning ore on the slopes of the mountain, black, coarsely clad and repulsive. Here they were clean, orderly, and well-dressed. The average attendance at present is 60. The governess, a very intelligent woman, of many years’ experience, speaking of the aptness of these grown up women for learning, said, “You would be surprised how rapidly they get on. Even married women have learnt to read the Testament and to write well, in one season.” They were mostly writing when I entered, using steel pens [Industrial Revolution!] and copy-books – far preferable to the slate and pencil, which I think are too much used in some of these schools. A lady of the town – one of the voluntary teachers – was here engaged in her beneficent duties. The school for men being at a distance, in George Town, Cyfartha, I had not an opportunity of visiting it. The average attendance, I was told, is about 90.”

(Ibid., p. 78)

We should also remember the workers attending the Ancoats Lyceum, in one of the poorest areas in Manchester, close to the largest mills. They decided to rent a house for lectures and for a library of 700 books. The men workers paid 8 shillings a year and the women 5 shillings. 

The working class in the industrial districts did not give up on life, even if they were living in the midst of horribly dirty streets, and with a high rate of infant mortality. They were capable of cultural, intellectual, and social activities, in spite of all these disadvantages in their daily living conditions. 

17.9. Installation of Infrastructure without Charge to Wage-Earners

A number of improvements in the daily life of the working class were funded by the government, by private industry, or by rate-payers. Thus they are not visible in the long-term movements in the weekly wages. Another way of looking at this, is that they are included in the increase in Gross National Product, but not in the total of wages in the country. 

Gaslighting in streets and public places was introduced from 1815 onwards. The construction of the production facilities and for the purchase of coal for the gas was paid for by private companies. Their initial costs were covered by subscription from investors. The current costs were paid by local authorities, who were reimbursed by their ratepayers.

The introduction of penny postage in a government organization reduced the cost of letters to about one quarter. Before this date, it was nearly impossible for the poorer classes to use the postal system. 

The railways as such were a great improvement for everybody, as they made it much easier to travel, and reduced the transport costs for food and manufactures. For the working classes, the important change was in the “parliamentary trains”. The railway companies were legally obliged by the terms of their concessions to give subsidized tickets (one penny per mile) for third class passengers, for one train daily in each direction on every track connection.

17.8. Increase of the Services Sector

The percentage of male workers in the services sector increased from 15 % in 1770 to 22 % in 1860; probably the same movement took place as to the female workers.

(The Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, The Occupational Structure of Britain 1379-1911; https://www.campop.geog.cam.ac.uk/research/occupations/overview/)

These people are not included in the calculation in this study, of the average incomes from 1770 to 1860. The calculation (and other parts of the investigation) refers to mining, agriculture, manufacturing, and domestic industry.

According to the 1851 Census there were the following common service occupations (with the number of persons, male plus female):

Domestic servants                  1,030,000
Messengers and porters            100,000
Teachers                                     110,000
Commercial clerks                       43,000
Nurses                                          25,000
Washerwomen                            146,000
Charwomen                                  55,000
Gardeners                                     80,000
Police                                            37,000 

All of these activities came into being after 1770, due to changes in the society; the exception was “domestic servants”, who trebled their number. They were all paid on average 15 shillings a week or more (incl. value of bed and board found, in the case of the domestic servants) in 1860, and thus might well change the average percentage of wage increases. As we have seen in the first section of this chapter, their incomes should not be averaged with existing employments in the family, but added to the individual amount per “mouth”. 

Another important new occupation was that of conductors and drivers of horse-drawn omnibuses. There were 16,000 of these in London in 1860. The drivers earned 34 shillings a week, and the conductors could keep 4 shillings a day out of the fares they collected.

In Sheffield, with a population of 90,000, “the expansion of the retail and service sector is apparent by 1830. In 1833, the life of the community was supported by 326 hotels, inns and taverns, 235 beershops, and 318 flour, grocery, tea and general provision dealers. There were 38 booksellers, binders and printers, 109 milliners and dressmakers, 51 straw hat makers, 39 housepainters, 16 fishmongers, 31 bakers and 13 brewers, providing food, clothing and services for an expanding population. Accountants, collectors and agents constituted a growing white collar sector. Below these, and as yet unnumbered, were the servants, apprentices and clerks who performed the chores of domestic and commercial life.”

(Reid, 1976, p. 14; extracts from William White, History and General Directory of the Borough of Sheffield, 1833)

17.7. The Textile Districts were not very large

Thus they did not impact the average growth of the country.

In 1770, the number of families of agricultural labourers was 745,000, and of non-agricultural workers was 844,000; the cotton workers were 75,000, while solely the building artisans (carpenters, joiners, painters, bricklayers, stonemasons) were 118,000.

In 1830, the cotton workers were 302,000 families (of which the domestic hand-loom weavers with low wages were the majority), and the building artisans were the majority. 

So the considerable increase in the wages of the cotton mill workers did not make a large change in the average wages in the country.

Further, the Industrial Revolution did not reach large parts of the country, neither did it affect processes in the domestic industries, before 1830.