Chapter 10. Leisure Expenses, Savings and Education, Non-Financial Improvements

10.1. Leisure Expenses

10.2. Savings Banks and Benefit Societies

10.3. Mechanics’ Institutes and Reading Activities

10.4. Drunkenness

10.5. Prostitutes

10.6. Improvements which were not Increases in Monetary Earnings

10.7. Efficiency and Price Reductions

10.8. Truck Shops, Tommy Shops, and Chandler’s Shops

10.9. Co-Operative Societies

The situation of the working class cannot be measured only as a comparison of the incomes and the costs of daily living of the people. On the one hand, in many cases the people had enough money to spend, above and beyond food, clothing and rent. These expenses might be for innocent enjoyment, for cultural improvement, for savings clubs and unemployment insurance, or for drinking. 

On the other hand, there were many improvements in the daily life of the people, but which did not affect their individual monetary incomes. These were gas lighting, postage stamps, transport by rail, easier working conditions. This shows that the improvement in “standard of living” is more complex than the figure measured by their earnings.

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