Chapter 10. Leisure Expenses, Savings and Education, Non-Financial Improvements

10.1. Leisure Expenses https://history.pictures/2020/02/12/10-1-leisure-expenses/

10.2. Savings Banks and Benefit Societies https://history.pictures/2020/02/12/10-2-savings-banks-and-benefit-societies/

10.3. Mechanics’ Institutes and Reading Activities https://history.pictures/2020/02/12/10-3-mechanics-institutes-and-reading-activities/

10.4. Drunkenness https://history.pictures/2020/02/13/10-4-drunkenness/

10.5. Prostitutes https://history.pictures/2020/02/13/10-5-prostitutes/

10.6. Improvements which were not Increases in Monetary Earnings https://history.pictures/2020/02/13/10-6-improvements-which-were-not-increases-in-monetary-earnings/

10.7. Efficiency and Price Reductions https://history.pictures/2020/02/13/10-7-efficiency-and-price-reductions/

10.8. Truck Shops, Tommy Shops, and Chandler’s Shops https://history.pictures/2020/02/13/10-8-truck-shops-tommy-shops-and-chandlers-shops/

10.9. Co-Operative Societies https://history.pictures/2020/02/13/10-9-co-operative-societies/

The situation of the working class cannot be measured only as a comparison of the incomes and the costs of daily living of the people. On the one hand, in many cases the people had enough money to spend, above and beyond food, clothing and rent. These expenses might be for innocent enjoyment, for cultural improvement, for savings clubs and unemployment insurance, or for drinking. 

On the other hand, there were many improvements in the daily life of the people, but which did not affect their individual monetary incomes. These were gas lighting, postage stamps, transport by rail, easier working conditions. This shows that the improvement in “standard of living” is more complex than the figure measured by their earnings.

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